Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education

supporting inclusion, challenging exclusion

Concluding observations of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child – extracts concerning inclusive education and disability, gender and ethnic background and related issues, 2002-2010

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Albania

(31 March 2005, CRC/C/15/Add.249, Concluding observations on initial report, paras. 52, 53, 61 and 64)

"The Committee welcomes the establishment of an inter-ministerial group to develop a National Strategy for Persons with Disabilities, but remains concerned at the large number of children with disabilities who are institutionalized, are not included in the mainstream education system, or are without education at all, and at the general lack of resources and specialized staff for these children....

"The Committee encourages the State party to actively pursue its current efforts and continue:

a) to review existing policies and practices in relation to children with disabilities, taking due regard of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96 of 20 December 1993, annex) and of the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on “The rights of children with disabilities” (see CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339);

b) to pursue efforts to ensure that children with disabilities may exercise their right to education to the maximum extent possible and facilitate their inclusion in the mainstream education system....

"The Committee urges the State party: ...

b) to devise more child-sensitive methods to combat repetition and reduce dropout rates and to address the causes thereof, with a view to preventing such occurrences and achieving universal attendance; particular attention in this respect should also be given to the situation of girls....

"The Committee welcomes the progress made in establishing a clearer legal framework governing the treatment of refugees and the prevention of statelessness, including the progress made in securing access by all refugee and asylum-seeking children to Albanian schools...."

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Algeria

(12 October 2005, CRC/C/15/Add.269, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 54, 62, 64, 65, 66, 67, 73 and 84)

“In light of the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the recommendations adopted by the Committee on its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (see CRC/C/69), the Committee recommends that the State party take all necessary measures: ...

c) to provide children with disabilities with access to adequate social and health services, quality education, the physical environment, information and communication; ...

e) to ensure that professionals working with and for children with disabilities, such as medical, paramedical and related personnel, teachers and social workers, are adequately trained.

“The Committee welcomes the fact that all children aged 6 to 16 years, including non-national children, are entitled to compulsory and free education without any discrimination. While noting with appreciation the generally increasing literacy rates among youth, the Committee is concerned that the literacy rate of girls does not keep pace with the increasing literacy of boys.

“While commending the State party for its efforts to increase enrolment in primary education, the Committee is concerned about the disparities in the enrolment rate between wilayas and the high repetition rates....

“The Committee notes with appreciation the State party’s efforts to address gender disparities in education, inter alia through implementing a literacy programme for women and girls (Projet d’alphabétisation de la femme et de la jeune fille, 1990-2002) and eliminating boarding school fees for girls. Nevertheless, the Committee remains concerned about the findings of an inter-wilaya analysis which reveals persisting gender disparities in the gross enrolment ratio for girls.

“With regard to access to quality education by nomadic children having a pastoral lifestyle, the Committee refers to its previous recommendation made upon the consideration of the State party’s initial report and regrets that the State party’s second periodic report lacks information about this issue. The Committee is deeply concerned that the State party is not able to meet the educational needs of nomadic children.

“The Committee recommends that the State party allocate adequate financial, human and technical resources in order to: ...

e) take effective measures to address gender disparities in education, for example by expanding literacy programmes for women and girls and developing and adopting a gender-specific education strategy, including scholarship programmes for girls living in rural areas; ...

g) provide nomadic children with access to quality education through flexible models of education such as mobile schools and distance learning programmes...

“In light of article 22 and other relevant provisions of the Convention, the Committee recommends that the State party take all feasible measures to ensure full protection and care, as well as access to health and social services and to education, of Western Saharan refugee children living in refugee camps in Algeria, and in this respect continue its cooperation with, among others, UNHCR and WFP.

“In light of article 30 of the Convention, the Committee recommends that the State party continue and strengthen its efforts to protect and promote the identity and the rights of the Amazigh children, including by allocating adequate human and financial resources for the teaching of the Amazigh language, Tamazight, in schools....”

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Angola

(1 October 2010, CRC-C-AGO-CO-2-4 Concluding observations: Angola Paras. 47, 48, 59 and 60.)

“The Committee notes that that the Constitution acknowledges the rights of children with physical and mental disabilities to live “full and decent lives” without discrimination based on their disability. The Committee also notes that programmes are carried out to care for persons with disabilities and to ensure their social inclusion. However, the Committee remains concerned that there is still resistance to the full integration of persons with disabilities in society, that legislative and policy gaps in the protection of the rights of children with disabilities remain and that professional staff working with children with disabilities may not be adequately trained. The Committee also notes with regret that the State party has not yet ratified the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol.”

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

      (a) Ensure full implementation of, and, if necessary create additional, legislation and policies for the protection of the rights of children with disabilities;
      (b) Continue and further strengthen its programmes and services for all children with disabilities in order to ensure that appropriate care, protection and inclusive education are provided to these children and that they can actively participate in the community. In this regard, the State party should make certain that such services receive adequate human and financial resources;
      (c) Provide adequate training for professional staff working with children with disabilities, such as teachers, social workers and medical, paramedical and related personnel,;
      (d) Consider signing and ratifying the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol;
      (e) Take into account the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the Committee’s general comment No. 9 (2006) on the rights of children with disabilities.”

“The Committee notes with interest the National Education for All Plan, which seeks to broaden access to primary and secondary education as well as the 2006-2015 Integrated Strategies to Improve the Education System in terms of Gender, Literacy and Rehabilitation of Children Left Behind, and a back-to-school campaign. The Committee is concerned that despite recent increases in budget allocations to education, the budget of the education sector remains inadequate, which also slows down efforts to rehabilitate the many schools destroyed in the war. The Committee is also concerned at:

      (a) The high number of children not enrolled in primary school and the high dropout rate of those who are enrolled;
      (b) The low attendance in secondary school;
      (c) The shortage of properly trained and qualified teachers,
      (d) The lack of appropriate teaching-learning materials and textbooks.
      (e) Reports of violence and sexual harassment by teachers or other students in many schools despite the development of child-friendly schools as models;
      (f) The limited existence of early childhood education programmes;
      (g) The absence of human rights education in the school curricula.”

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

      (a) Take steps to ensure universal enrolment in primary school for both boys and girls and to increase attendance of secondary schools;
      (b) Strengthen efforts to prevent children from dropping out and reintegrate those children who have dropped out before completing primary school;
      (c) Take steps to ensure, by the construction of new schools and the rehabilitation of destroyed schools, that there are an adequate number of schools and classrooms within communities and that these schools and classrooms have gender sensitive sanitation facilities;
      (d) Improve the quality of education through, inter alia, ensuring that teachers are well-trained and fully qualified, curricula updated and appropriate teaching-learning materials and textbooks available in all schools and classrooms;
      (e) Make sure that, following the end of compulsory education at age 12, vocational training facilities are available;
      (f) Protect children, in particular girls, against violence and sexual harassment in school practiced by teachers and other students;
      (g) Take steps to ensure the integration of human rights, in particular the rights of the child, into school curricula at all levels;
      (h) Increase budget allocations for education, so that plans and strategies can be implemented with adequate personnel and material resources;
      (i) Raise awareness of the general public about early childhood education and ensure that early childhood education facilities are also provided with the necessary resources so that they are adequately staffed and furnished; and
      (j) Take into account the Committee's general comment No. 1 (2001) on the aims of education.”

(3 November 2004, CRC/C/15/Add.246, Concluding observations on initial report, paras. 40, 41, 52 and 53)

“The Committee ... regrets the lack of official data on the number of children with disabilities and the lack of care facilities for these children, especially in rural areas, and the fact that a large number of children with disabilities do not attend any form of education.

“In light of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96, annex) and the recommendations adopted by the Committee at its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (see CRC/C/69), the Committee recommends that the State party take all necessary measures: ...

c) to provide equal educational opportunities for children with disabilities, including by providing the necessary support and ensuring that teachers are trained to educate children with disabilities in regular schools....

“... The Committee notes with concern, however, the very low enrolment of children in pre-school and primary school and the even lower enrolment in secondary school, in particular of girls. It is also concerned about the marked disparities in enrolment between rural and urban areas....

“The Committee urges the State party to take all necessary measures: ...

f) to prevent and eliminate gender and urban-rural disparities in school attendance and completion rates;

g) to undertake campaigns to instil awareness among parents of the importance of sending their children, particularly girls, to school....”

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Antigua and Barbuda

(3 November 2004, CRC/C/15/Add.247, Concluding observations on initial report, paras. 49, 50, 57, 58 and 59)

“While noting the existence of the State-run special programme, institutions and special units for children with disabilities and the “Early Intervention Programme” instituted in 1990, and the information that making public buildings accessible for persons with disabilities is under consideration, the Committee remains concerned at the lack of: ...

d) full integration of children with disabilities into the regular schooling system.

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) review the situation of these children in terms of their access to suitable health care, education services and employment opportunities, and allocate adequate resources to strengthen services for children with disabilities, support their families and train professionals in the field;

c) in the light of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96, annex) and the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339), further encourage the integration of children with disabilities into the regular educational system and their inclusion into society, inter alia by giving more attention to special training for teachers and making the physical environment, including schools, sports and leisure facilities and all other public areas, accessible for children with disabilities; ...

e) seek technical cooperation for the training of professional staff, including teachers, working with and for children with disabilities from, among others, UNICEF and WHO.

“The Committee ... remains concerned about a variety of problems, including: shortage of schools and overcrowding; material shortages in schools; equality of access to education; drop-out of boys. The Committee is also concerned that, owing to the entrance examination system, not all students are guaranteed entry into the free public secondary schools.

“The Committee is also concerned that a significant number of pregnant teenagers do not generally continue their education, and that the Golden Opportunity Programme initiated by the Ministry of Education seems to have had little success. The Committee is also concerned that girls and young women are often forced to leave school because of pregnancy.

“The Committee recommends that the State party carefully examine the budgetary allocations for and measures taken within the field with regard to their impact on the progressive implementation of the child’s right to education and leisure activities. In particular, the Committee recommends that the State party:

a) take further measures to facilitate access to education by children from all groups in society by, inter alia, building more schools, improving the provision of school materials, and abolishing the entrance examination system so as to guarantee all students access to public secondary schools; ...

c) provide education opportunities for pregnant teenagers....”

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Argentina

(11 June 2010, CRC/C/ARG/CO/3-4 Concluding Observations: Argentina Paras. 8, 31, 32, 55, 56, 65, 66, 67, 68 and 69)

“The Committee urges the State party to take all necessary measures to address those recommendations from the concluding observations of the second periodic report that have not yet been implemented or sufficiently implemented. These include such issues as … multicultural education (para. 57), … as well as to provide adequate follow-up to the recommendations contained in the present concluding observations on the third and fourth report.”

“The Committee notes Decree No. 1086/2005 establishing a national plan against discrimination. While welcoming the State party’s effort to favour disadvantaged children, to establish programs to promote bilingual and intercultural education for indigenous children and health program focusing on the needs of indigenous children, the Committee is nevertheless concerned at persistent reports of discrimination, social exclusion and physical, sexual and psychological abuse of indigenous children, , amounting to around 3 to 5% of the total population in the country.”

“… The Committee further requests that specific information be included in the next periodic report on the measures and programmes relevant to the Convention on the Rights of the Child undertaken by the State party to follow up on the Declaration and Programme of Action adopted at the 2001 World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, taking into account General comment No.1 (CRC/GC/2001/1) on the aims of education.”

“The Committee welcomes efforts of the State party to implement the rights of children with disabilities to education, by improving standards of special education as a part of educational system. It notes with concern that only 42 % of children with disabilities below the age of 14 years have health insurance. The Committee further notes with concern that children with disabilities are often victims of discrimination, including economically due to, inter alia, unresolved pension issues and access to housing. The Committee is also concerned at insufficient efforts to equip all professionals working with children with disabilities, during training programs, with all needed knowledge and skills, with special focus on inclusive education.”

“In light of the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the Committee’s general comment No. 9 on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/GC/9, 2006), the Committee recommends that the State party:

      (a) Ensure that children with disabilities are included in the system of education and health insurance plans;
      (b) Take all necessary measures to ensure the implementation of legislation providing services for children with disabilities and consider adopting specific legislation on the issue;
      (c) Continue and further strengthen its programmes and services for all children with disabilities, including through the development of early identification programmes, to cover all children with disabilities in need of its services and special education as part of the school curriculum. In this regard, the State party should ensure that such services receive adequate human and financial resources;
      (d) Enhance and broaden training for professional staff working with children, such as medical, paramedical and related personnel.”

“The Committee notes with appreciation adoption of Law No. 26.206, on National Education, preceded by an ample national debate, as well as the objective to reach 6% of GDP for education. The Committee welcomes in particular that compulsory secondary and pre-school education is introduced, expressly acknowledging that ¨education is a personal and social right to be guaranteed by the State¨. The Committee also notes the scholarship programme to favour inclusion of adolescents, the construction of new schools and the distribution of computers in secondary schools.”

“The Committee, nevertheless, observes that there is still a significant number of adolescents who drop out and that there are insufficient measures to ensure a child’s transition from school to employment. This affects in particular indigenous adolescents living in extreme poverty. Furthermore, the Committee notes that the proportion of children with disabilities receiving special education is growing (78% of those between the age of 3 and 17 years), nevertheless, it regrets that only 53 % are integrated into regular educational facilities. The Committee further regrets the absence of reliable information regarding the number and reasons for drop out, especially of pregnant girls.”

“The Committee recommends that the State party, taking into account its General comment No. 1 (CRC/GC/2001/1) on the aims of education:

    Reduce disparities across the provinces, particularly those related to children with disabilities, indigenous children and pregnant girls, in access to education and full enjoyment of the right to education;
    a. Invest additional resources in order to ensure the right of all children to a truly inclusive education;
    b. Take all measures to ensure that children complete their schooling, taking concrete action to address the reasons behind non-completion of schooling and take measures to ensure children’s transition from school to employment;
    c. Expand and improve the quality of vocational education and training for children, including for those who have left school without certificates, enabling them to acquire competencies and skills in order to enhance their work opportunities;

“The Committee notes the study carried out in the State party on incidents of violence in schools and associated institutions. It expresses concern at the high levels of children having been exposed to incidents of violence or physical and other kinds of aggression, including bullying among children.” “The State party should take urgent measures to protect children from exposure to violence or physical and other aggression, including bullying among children in educational facilities.”

(9 October 2002, CRC/C/15/Add.187, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 29, 53, 56 and 57)

“The Committee is concerned that the principle of non-discrimination is not fully implemented for children living in poverty, indigenous children, children of migrant workers, primarily those from neighbouring countries, street children, children with disabilities and marginalized adolescents who are neither studying nor working, especially with regard to their access to adequate health care and educational facilities.

“In light of article 23 of the Convention, the Committee recommends that the State party: ...

f) in light of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96, annex) and the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339), further encourage their integration into the regular educational system and their inclusion into society, including by providing special training to teachers and by making schools more accessible.

“The Committee, while noting the increase in school enrolment for both primary and secondary education, remains concerned at the limited access to education and at the high drop-out and repetition rates, especially at secondary school level, which affect, in particular, children from marginalized urban and rural areas, indigenous children and children from migrant families, particularly illegal migrants....

“In light of articles 28 and 29 of the Convention, the Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) enforce the Social Plan of Education in order to ensure regular attendance at school and the reduction of drop-out rates, especially with regard to the most vulnerable children....”

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Armenia

(26 February 2004, CRC/C/15/Add.225, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 43, 44, 54 and 55)

“The Committee remains concerned at the prevailing poor situation of children with disabilities, who are often institutionalized. Furthermore, while noting the measures taken to enable children with disabilities to receive instruction within regular schools, the Committee regrets that access by children with disabilities to mainstream and special education remains limited.

“Reiterating its previous recommendations, and in light of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the recommendations adopted by the Committee at its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339), the Committee encourages the State party to make greater efforts to implement alternatives to the institutionalization of children with disabilities, including community-based rehabilitation programmes. The Committee also encourages the State party to strengthen ongoing efforts to integrate children with disabilities into mainstream education. The Committee also reiterates its recommendation that awareness-raising campaigns focusing on prevention, inclusive education, family care and the promotion of the rights of children with disabilities be undertaken, and that adequate training be made available to persons working with these children.

“... in line with the concluding observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD/C/61/CO/1), the Committee expresses its concern about the inadequate access by minority children to education in their mother tongue.

“The Committee recommends the State party:

a) allocate the required resources (human, technical and financial) to ensure access to quality education for all children, including the most vulnerable groups; ...

e) ensure, whenever possible, that children belonging to minority groups have access to education in their mother tongue....”

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Australia

(20 October 2005, CRC/C/15/Add.268, Concluding observations on second/third report, paras. 46, 59, 61, 63, 75 and 77)

“In the light of the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and of the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on “Children with disabilities” (see CRC/C/69), the Committee encourages the State party to actively pursue its current efforts and: ...

d) to implement the Disability Standards for Education and give adequate support to the Literacy, Numeracy and Special Learning Needs Programme, a key targeted programme aimed at improving the literacy, numeracy and other learning outcomes of students who are educationally disadvantaged, including students with disabilities....

“While the Committee acknowledges the State party’s efforts in this field, including the Jobs Education and Training Child Care Programme, it continues to be concerned at the serious difficulties that indigenous children and children living in remote areas face with regard to education, and in particular their lower level of achievement and high dropout rate.

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) take all necessary measures to ensure that articles 28 and 29 of the Convention are fully implemented, in particular with regard to children belonging to the most vulnerable groups (i.e. indigenous children, homeless children, children living in remote areas, children with disabilities, etc.); ...

c) ensure that public education policy and school curricula reflect in all their aspects the principle of full participation and equality, include children with disabilities in the mainstream school system to the extent possible and provide them with the necessary assistance.

“The Committee is further concerned that children who are granted a temporary protection visa (those arriving in the country without any travel document) do not have the right to family reunification and have limited access to social security, health services and education.

“Despite the numerous measures taken by the State party’s authorities, including the Indigenous Child Care Support Programme, the Committee remains concerned about the overall situation of indigenous Australians, especially with regard to their health, education, housing, employment and standard of living.

“The Committee recommends that the State party strengthen its efforts to continue developing and implementing - in consultation with the indigenous communities – policies and programmes aimed at ensuring equal access for indigenous children to culturally appropriate services, including social and health services and education....”

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Azerbaijan

(17 March 2006, CRC/C/AZE/CO/2, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 47, 48, 57, 58 and 59)

“The Committee is also concerned that children with disabilities do not have access to the mainstream education service and that a strong medical approach to this problem does not facilitate their inclusion.

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) ensure implementation of the Standard Rules for Equalizing the Possibilities for Persons with Disabilities, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 20 December 1993;

b) ensure that children with disabilities may exercise their right to education and facilitate inclusion in the mainstream education system....

“The Committee welcomes the information that 96 per cent of the over-15 population is literate and recognizes the progress made with regard to the implementation of the right to education of IDPs and refugee children. However, it is concerned that: ...

e) access to education is difficult for children living in poverty, refugee and IDPs children, children with disabilities, children in conflict with the law and children living in rural and remote areas....

“The Committee recommends that the State party, taking into account the Committee’s general comment No. 1 on the Aims of Education (2001), take all necessary measures to ensure that articles 28 and 29 of the Convention are fully implemented. In particular, the State party should: ...

f) ensure that refugee and displaced children are placed in schools in the local communities in order to facilitate their integration....

“The Committee notes with appreciation that Azerbaijan provides protection to refugees, including refugee children of Chechen ethnicity from the Russian Federation. Nonetheless, the Committee remains concerned that 35 per cent of about 600,000 IDPs and 200,000 refugees are children and that they live in very poor conditions, lacking basic sanitary and hygienic services, potable water and educational facilities among other things.”

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B

Bahamas

(31 March 2005, CRC/C/15/Add.253, Concluding observations on initial report, paras. 45, 46 and 53)

“The Committee takes note of the 2000 Census Report, which provides mainly quantitative information but lacks specific details on persons with disabilities. The Committee is concerned at the societal discrimination experienced by children with disabilities, the inaccessibility of buildings and transportation for them and the absence of an inclusive policy. The Committee is particularly concerned that children with disabilities in less populated islands suffer particular disadvantage regarding access to services.

“In the light of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96 of 20 December 1993, annex) and the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339), the Committee recommends that the State party ensure the integration of these children into mainstream education. In this respect, the State party should take into account the principle of non-discrimination and accessibility to all services, including public buildings and transportation, and specifically address the situation of children in less populated islands.

“The Committee ... notes that the PACE Programme (Providing Access to Continued Education Programme) ensures that pregnant teenagers are given an opportunity to complete their education. However, the Committee remains concerned at the dropout rates within the formal public education system, especially among boys....”

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Bangladesh

(12 June 2009, CRC/C/BGD/CO/4 Advance unedited version, Concluding observations on third/fourth report, paras. 8, 9, 73, 74, 75 and 79)

"The Committee notes with appreciation the efforts made by the State party to implement the Committee’s concluding observations made upon the consideration of the State party’s second periodic report in 2003 (CRC/C/15/Add.221). Nevertheless, the Committee regrets that several concerns and recommendations have been insufficiently or only partly addressed, including those related to ... equitable access to and quality of health and education services....

“The Committee urges the State party to take all necessary measures to address the previous recommendations that have not been fully implemented and to provide adequate follow-up to the recommendations contained in the present concluding observations on the third and fourth periodic reports.

“While noting the progress made in increasing primary school enrolment, reducing the gender gap and expanding programmes supporting the access of marginalized groups of children living in poverty to school, the Committee remains concerned about ... the marked disparities in access to education among the regions....

“In addition, the Committee is concerned about the reported mistreatment of children by their teachers and the frequent cases of bullying and sexual harassment particularly of girls at school and on the way to school; the lack of separate sanitation facilities for girls and boys....

“The Committee recommends that the State Party: ...

e) consider making multilingual education available in remote areas for minority and indigenous children;

f) increase the transition rate to secondary school and support girls to continue education at the secondary level; ...

h) effectively level out the access and quality disparities of the educational system across the regions of the country, with special attention to the less developed regions;

i) better equip schools with educational materials and adequate sanitation facilities for girls and boys; and

j) conduct vigorous awareness-raising campaigns in schools and communities to combat the mistreatment of children and prevent bullying and sexual harassment of children in schools and on the way to school, especially of girls.

“The Committee reiterates its recommendation to the State party to: ...

b) consider allowing children residing in the refugee camps and their families to access, inter alia, education ...;

c) address the concerns of approximately 100,000 – 200,000 Rohingya [from Myanmar], including children, not registered as refugees by the State party but who reside in the country for similar reasons as the registered refugees in official camps and to provide them with ... access to education....”

(27 October 2003, CRC/C/15/Add.221, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 28, 55, 56, 63, 65 and 68)

“The Committee welcomes the measures undertaken by the State party to enhance the situation of girls, especially in relation to education....

“The Committee is concerned at the situation of children with disabilities, and societal discrimination against these children, including their exclusion with the exception of the visually impaired, from the educational system.

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) in light of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on the issue of “The rights of children with disabilities” (CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339), further encourage their integration into the regular educational system and inclusion into society, including by providing special training to teachers and by making schools more accessible to children with disabilities....

“The Committee welcomes the progress made by the State party in the field of education, notably with regard to increases in primary and secondary enrolments, the reduction in gender disparities in enrolment and improvement in the literacy rates.... However, the Committee is concerned that ... the school dropout rate is high and that gender-based discrimination persists within schools. Other concerns include reports of abuse and sexual molestation, especially of girls, inaccessibility to schools, inadequate sanitation and the misuse of allocated resources.

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) continue to address gender-based discrimination and other difficulties encountered by girls within the educational system and school environment; ...

d) provide appropriate sanitation facilities, especially for females, in all schools.... “The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

c) in collaboration with and with support from international agencies, undertake effective measures to improve the living conditions of refugee families and children, particularly with regard to educational and health-care services;

d) provide unaccompanied refugee children with adequate care, education and protection....”

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Belgium

11 June 2010, CRC/C/BEL/CO/3-4 Concluding observations: Belgium Paras. 31, 54, 55, 66, 67, 68 and 69.

“The Committee notes the initiatives taken at community level to combat discrimination, in particular in accessing education. However, the Committee reiterates its serious concern as to the multiple forms of discrimination to which children living in poverty are subjected in the State party, in particular regarding their access to education, health care and leisure. The Committee is also concerned at continuous discrimination suffered by children with disabilities and children of foreign origin.”

“While noting the adoption on 5 February 2009 of a decree in the French community on the integration of children with disabilities in to regular education, the Committee expresses serious concern that children with disabilities may be deprived from any schooling possibilities as the result of insufficient inclusive education and the shortage of places in special education …”

“In light of art 23 of the Convention and the Committee’s general comment No. 9 (2006) on the rights of children with disabilities, the Committee urges the State party to take more practical actions to ensure inclusive education for children with disabilities and integration into day-care centres. The Committee also calls upon the State party to ensure that resources allocated to children with disabilities are sufficient – and earmarked so that they are not used for other purposes – to cover all their needs, including programmes established for training professionals working with children with disabilities, especially teachers working with children with disabilities, in mainstream schools.”

“While noting the measures adopted by the State party to ensure the right to education, including the adoption in June 2002 of the decree on the equal opportunity in education in the Flemish Community and the 2006 circular on free education, the Committee expresses concern about the significant inequality in the enjoyment of the right to education among children in the State party, and particularly at the impact of socioeconomic status on the education opportunities accessible to children and their school performance. The Committee notes with particular concern that:

      (a) Schools fees imposed in spite of the constitutional guarantee of free education greatly contribute to discrimination in the access to education;
      (b) Children from poor families and foreign children are likely to be relegated to special education programmes;
      (c) School dropout tends to be criminalized and young persons absent from schools reported to judicial authorities; and
      (d) Initiatives are being taken in the Flemish community to cut the school allowances of children who do not attend school.”

“The Committee urges the State party to:

      (a) Take the necessary measures to abolish school fees in accordance with its Constitution;
      (b) Ensure that all children have access to education regardless of their socio-economic status and that children from poor families are no longer relegated to special education programmes;
      (c) Strengthen efforts to reduce performance disparity, giving special attention to promoting education of children of foreign origin; and
      (d) Refrain from taking repressive measures that will negatively impact on the most economically and socially disadvantaged families and are unlikely to contribute to their greater involvement in the school system and instead build coherent strategies involving teachers, parents and children to address the root causes of school dropout.”

“The Committee is concerned at the prevalence of bullying in schools, particularly of children of foreign origin.”

“The Committee strongly recommends that the State party develop comprehensive prevention and sensitization programmes to combat bullying and any other forms of violence in schools.”

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Belize

(31 March 2005, CRC/C/15/Add.252, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 25, 27, 50, 51, 61, 62, 72 and 73)

“While appreciating that some measures have been taken to promote the principle of non-discrimination against children, such as the enactment in 1998 of the Families and Children Act, which guarantees that all children are of equal status in the application of the Belizean legislation, the Committee is concerned at the persistent discrimination faced by girls, children with disabilities, migrant children, children living in poverty, children belonging to minorities, indigenous children, children infected with or affected by HIV/AIDS, children living in rural areas, and pregnant students and teenage mothers in schools.

“The Committee requests that specific information be included in the next periodic report on the measures and programmes relevant to the Convention undertaken by the State party to follow up on the Declaration and Programme of Action adopted at the 2001 World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, with due regard to the Committee’s general comment No. 1 on the aims of education (2001).

“The Committee expresses grave concern about the situation of children with disabilities and regrets that de facto discrimination against them still exists. The Committee notes with concern the lack of specific legislation which would ensure full and equal participation in social life, including access to social and health services, education, training, information and communication, rehabilitation, recreation and care, for children with disabilities. The Committee is concerned about the lack of basic services supporting children with disabilities and of adequate financial and human resources partially caused by the closing of the Disability Services Division, resulting in a situation in which the non-governmental organization CARE-Belize can only provide very limited services for children with disabilities. Furthermore, the Committee expresses its concern about the lack of statistical data on children with disabilities.

“The Committee urges the State party, taking into account the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96 of 20 December 1993, annex) and the recommendations adopted by the Committee at its day of general discussion on “The rights of children with disabilities” (see CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339):

a) to enact special legislation dealing exclusively with disability issues, including access to social and health services, rehabilitation, support services, physical environment, information and communication, education, recreation and sports, in order to achieve the objectives of full participation and equality for children with disabilities; ...

d) to integrate education for children with disabilities into national educational planning and curriculum and to include children with disabilities in the mainstream school system to the extent possible, including by providing the necessary financial and human resources for the training of teachers....

“... With respect to the treatment of pregnant students and teenage mothers in schools, the Committee expresses its grave concern that the State party does not have a policy to prevent and combat the school-based practices of educational exclusion of these students....

“The Committee recommends that the State party allocate adequate financial, technical and human resources in order: ...

b) to progressively ensure that all children, without any distinction as to gender or ethnic origin, from all areas of the country, have equal access to compulsory and free quality primary education, without any financial obstacles; ...

d) to pay special attention to the needs of children belonging to vulnerable groups, including girls, migrant children, working children, children living in poverty, children deprived of their liberty, children belonging to minorities and indigenous children, in order to safeguard their right to education at all levels;

e) to address the educational needs of pregnant students and teenage mothers in schools and to introduce a national policy on equal treatment of all students in respect of their right to education at all levels....

“With regard to children belonging to minorities and indigenous peoples, such as Maya and Garifuna children, the Committee is concerned about the widespread poverty among them and the limited enjoyment of their rights, particularly concerning their access to social and health services and education....

“The Committee recommends that the State party strengthen its efforts to improve the equal enjoyment of all rights of children belonging to minorities and indigenous peoples, in particular, by prioritizing effective measures to reduce poverty among them....”

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Benin

(20 October 2006, CRC/C/BEN/CO/2, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 25, 26, 27, 49, 50, 61 and 62)

“While noting that the Constitution and other domestic laws guarantee the principle of non-discrimination, the Committee notes with concern that this principle is not fully implemented for girls, including vidomégons (the practice of placing children with a third part as an act of mutual assistance or family or community solidarity), children in need of alternative care, children with disabilities, street children, children infected by HIV/AIDS, children living in rural areas, and children living in poverty, in particular with regard to their access to adequate health and educational facilities.

“The Committee recommends that the State party make greater efforts to ensure that all children within its jurisdiction enjoy the rights enshrined in the Convention without discrimination, in accordance with article 2 of the Convention, by effectively implementing the existing laws which guarantee the principle of non-discrimination. The Committee recommends that the State party adopt a proactive and comprehensive strategy to eliminate de factor discrimination on any grounds and against all children, paying particular attention toe children belonging to vulnerable groups, and prioritize social and health services and equal opportunities to education and recreational activities for these children. The Committee also encourages the State party to create a supportive and gender-sensitive environment which promotes the equal rights of girls to participate in the family, at school, within other institutions, in local communities and in society in general.

“Furthermore, the Committee requests that specific information be included in the next periodic report on the measures and programmes relevant to the Convention taken by the State party to follow up on the Declaration and Programme of Action adopted at the 2001 World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, also taking into account the Committee’s general comment No. 1 (2001) on the aims of education (art. 29.1).

“While noting measures undertaken by the State party, in particular the implementation of the programme of action for 2001-2006, the Committee reiterates its concern at the persisting de facto discrimination, lack of statistical data on the number of children with disabilities and insufficient educational opportunities for these children.

“The Committee recommends that the State party, taking into account the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the recommendations adopted by the Committee on its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities held on 6 October 1997 (see CRC/C/69): ...

c) consider creating an inter-institutional plan with the support of local government and civil society and thereby strengthen cooperation between teachers, school management, parents, children and the society at large; ...

f) provide the necessary financial resources for the development of education for children with special needs and further encourage their inclusion into the general educational system and into society....

“The Committee notes with appreciation the various efforts undertaken by the State party, including the adoption of the national plan of action entitled “Education for All” and the Ten Year Development Plan for the Education Sector which, according to the delegation, will be revised....

“In the light of articles 28 and 29 of the Convention and taking into account the Committee general comment No. 1 (2001) on the aims of education, the Committee recommends that the State party continue to allocate adequate financial, human and technical resources in order to: ...

d) pay specific attention to gender, socio-economic and regional disparities in access to and full enjoyment of the right to education, including by introducing specific measures to ensure that children from economically disadvantaged households are not excluded and have equal opportunities;

e) reinforce the implementation of the Essential Learning Package to accelerate girls education and take effective measures to reduce the growing gender disparity in literacy levels, including measures aimed at altering cultural conceptions that literacy is aimed primarily at boys....”

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Bhutan

(3 October 2008, CRC/C/BTN/CO/2 Unedited version, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 25, 26, 50, 51, 60, 61, 62 and 63)

“The Committee ... remains concerned over gender discrimination, the lack of services for children with disabilities, the gap of resources between rural and urban areas and the disparities in the enjoyment of rights experienced by children of Nepalese ethnic origin, particularly in relation to their right to a nationality, to education and to health services.

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) establish accessible and effective mechanisms and procedures to monitor, receive and address complaints of discrimination (e.g. prompt appeal in circumstances of denial of school enrolment)....

“The Committee notes measures the State party has undertaken in order to enhance access to specialised services and education for children with disabilities....

“The Committee recommends that the State party, while taking into account the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the Committee’s general comment No. 9 on the rights of children with disabilities, take all necessary measures to:

a) adopt an inclusive education strategy and elaborate a plan of action in order to increase the school attendance of children with special needs and focus on day care services for these children in order to prevent their institutionalisation; ...

d) consider ratifying the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol....

“The Committee welcomes that the Constitution guarantees free education to all children of school going age up to the class ten. The Committee also notes achievements in education indicators, such as the decrease of the gender gap, and the planned construction of primary and community schools. However, the Committee is concerned that ... a remarkable number of children are not enrolled, that regional disparities persist, that repetition and dropout rates are still high and that gender parity has yet to be still achieved....

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) ensure that primary education is compulsory and free of all costs and accessible in an equitable manner for all children; ...

d) provide more early education facilities and vocational training centres accessible in all regions of the country;

“The Committee, while noting as positive the planned re-opening of schools in south Bhutan and the abolishment of the ‘no objection certificate’ announced by the State party during the dialogue, is still concerned over prevailing discrimination in the field of education against children of Nepalese ethnic origin. The Committee notes with concern that these children have reduced access to education due to the lack of educational institutions at all levels and that they are denied education in their own language. The Committee is concerned over the lack of data on children of Nepalese ethnic origin attending school.

“The Committee recommends that the State party, in light of its obligations under articles 28, 2 and 30 of the Convention to provide education for all children within its jurisdiction, including for children of Nepalese ethnic origin, non-Bhutanese and stateless children.”

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Bolivia

(2 October 2009, CRC/C/BOL/CO/4 Advance Unedited Version, Concluding observations on fourth report, paras. 28, 51, 52, 67, 68, 85 and 86)

“... The Committee is further concerned about the significant disparities in the State Party in the implementation of the rights enshrined in the Convention, reflected in a range of social indicators such as enrolment in and completion of education, infant mortality rates and access to health care, indicating persistent discrimination against indigenous and afro-descendant children, girls, children with disabilities, children living in rural and remote areas and children from economically disadvantaged families.

“The Committee notes with appreciation initiatives to ensure the rights of children with disabilities, such as the new Constitution of 2009 which recognizes their right to universal education without discrimination. Nevertheless, the Committee is concerned that children with disabilities continue to experience discrimination, that most teachers are not properly trained to work with children with disabilities, and at the lack of collection and analysis of data concerning children with disabilities.

“The Committee recommends that the State Party: ...

d) proceed to ratify the International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol, signed on 13 August 2007; and

e) take into account art. 23 of the Convention, General Comment no. 9 (2006) on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/GC/9) and the UN Standard Rules for Equalizing the Possibilities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96).

“The Committee welcomes the new Constitution which establishes free and compulsory primary and secondary education. It also welcomes the “Juancito Pinto Bonus Programme” which has reduced dropout and increased school attendance, and takes note of the planned new educational law “Avelino Sinani” which deals with the cultural diversity in the country. The Committee is however concerned that not all children, particularly indigenous children, attend primary school despite the introduction of compulsory education ... and [at] the marked gender disparity in secondary school.

“The Committee recommends that the State Party: ...

c) ensure that also girls and indigenous children fully realize their right to education;

d) improve the quality of teacher training, particularly with regard to inter-cultural and bilingual education; ...

“While welcoming political, legal and institutional reforms with the aim of reversing the situation of exclusion and marginalization of the indigenous peoples, the Committee shares the concerns of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights and fundamental freedoms of indigenous people at ... the failure to adapt the national education system to the traditional indigenous cultures....

“The Committee recommends that the State Party take all necessary measures to protect the rights of indigenous children and to guarantee their enjoyment of the rights enshrined in the national constitution, domestic law and in the Convention. In this regard, the Committee refers the State Party to its General Comment no. 11 (2009) on Indigenous Children and their rights under the Convention (CRC/C/GC/11) and to the recommendations issued by the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights and fundamental freedoms of indigenous people, contained in his report (A/HRC/11/11, 2008).”

(11 February 2005, CRC/C/15/Add.256, Concluding observations on third report, paras. 25, 26, 45, 46, 53 and 54)

“The Committee is deeply concerned about the significant disparities in the State party in the implementation of the rights enshrined in the Convention, reflected in a range of social indicators like enrolment in and completion of education, infant mortality rates and birth registration, indicating persistent discrimination against indigenous children, girls, children with disabilities and children living in rural areas.

“In light of article 2 of the Convention, the Committee recommends that the State party intensify its efforts to prevent and eliminate all forms of de facto discrimination against indigenous children, children with disabilities, girls and children living in rural areas.

“... The Committee also notes with concern the lack of public assistance and special education for children with disabilities; the large number of children with disabilities who do not attend any form of school education, especially in rural areas; and the lack of an integration policy in general for these children.

“The Committee recommends that the State party take all necessary measures: ...

c) to ensure and monitor the implementation of the Equality of Opportunity Act and Policy and to take into consideration the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96, annex);

d) to provide equal educational opportunities for children with disabilities, including by providing the necessary support and ensuring that teachers are trained to educate children with disabilities within regular schools.

“While welcoming the recent reform of the education system and the increase in coverage of both primary and secondary education achieved in the last years, the Committee is concerned at continuing low enrolment rates, especially among girls and indigenous children; the considerable disparities in the coverage and quality of education between urban and rural areas; and high dropout rates and persistently high illiteracy rates, particularly among rural and indigenous children and girls....

“The Committee encourages the State party: ...

c) to strengthen efforts to bridge the gender disparity in education, giving special attention to promoting the education of rural girls;

d) to take measures to identify the causes of the high dropout rate in schools, particularly in rural areas, and to take steps to address the situation; ...

i) to ratify the UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education of 1960.”

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

(21 September 2005, CRC/C/15/Add.260, Concluding observations on initial report, paras. 44, 45, 46, 57, 58 and 59)

“While the Committee welcomes the various legislative measures taken for the protection of children with disabilities, it notes with concern that discriminatory practices and prejudices still exist towards disabled persons, including children and that they lack sufficient medical care and educational opportunities.

“While the Committee welcomes the new framework law on primary and secondary education (2003), which requires inclusive learning and integration of children with special needs into mainstream education, it regrets that, so far, the implementation of the law has been inconsistent.

“The Committee encourages the State party to actively pursue its current efforts and to continue to:

a) review existing policies and practice in relation to children with disabilities, taking due regard of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities and of the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on children with disabilities (see CRC/C/69);

b) make efforts to detect disabilities within the educational system and ensure better evaluation of the overall needs of students with disabilities;

c) take concrete and specific measures to ensure that children with disabilities may exercise their right to education to the maximum extent possible and facilitate inclusion in the mainstream education system, including vocational education....

“The Committee is concerned that there exists extensive discrimination regarding access to education by ethnic and/or national minorities, especially Roma (only 33 per cent of whom attend primary school). Furthermore, the Committee is concerned that other marginalized groups of children, including refugees and returnees and children with disabilities face difficulties of access to schooling.

“The Committee is also concerned about:

a) the still existing phenomenon of the “two-schools-under-one-roof” system, whereby - in some Cantons - common premises are either divided or being used at different times by children of different ethnicity, who are taught a different curriculum depending on their national origin....

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) take all necessary measures to ensure that articles 28 and 29 of the Convention are fully implemented, in particular with regard to children belonging to the most vulnerable groups (i.e. minority groups, those living in poverty, refugee and returnee children, Roma children, children with disabilities, etc.); ...

f) in the light of article 29 on the aims of education, harmonize the educational system throughout the country, eliminate the so-called system of “two-schools-under-one-roof” and establish adequate programmes and activities with a view to create an environment of tolerance, peace and understanding of cultural diversity shared by all children to prevent intolerance, bullying and discrimination in schools and society at large....”

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Botswana

(3 November 2004, CRC/C/15/Add.242, Concluding observations on initial report, paras. 27, 28, 29, 46 and 47)

“... The Committee is deeply concerned at the situation of girls, in particular adolescent girls who, as acknowledged by the State party, suffer marginalization and gender stereotyping, compromising their educational opportunities....

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

c) pay special attention to the situation of girls through education campaign, participation, support and protection of girls....

“The Committee requests that specific information be included, in the next periodic report, on the measures and programmes relevant to the Convention on the Rights of the Child undertaken by the State party to follow up on the Declaration and Programme of Action adopted at the World Conference Against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, held in 2001, taking into account General Comment No. 1 on article 29, paragraph 1, of the Convention (aims of education).

“While welcoming the formulation of a national policy on the care of people with disabilities, the Committee is concerned that children with disabilities are still discriminated against and often considered “an embarrassment” by their parents, are not adequately integrated in the society or in the mainstream school system and do not have adequate access to social services, including health care, especially those living in remote areas.

“In the light of the Standards Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on the rights of the children with disabilities (CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339), the Committee recommends that the State party continue to strengthen its efforts to combat discriminatory attitudes towards children with disabilities, particularly amongst children and parents, and promote their participation in all aspects of social and cultural life. The State party should also ensure that all children with disabilities have access to health care facilities and education and, wherever possible, they are integrated into the mainstream education system.”

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Brazil

(3 November 2004, CRC/C/15/Add.241, Concluding observations on initial report, paras. 50, 51, 71 and 72)

“The Committee ... remains concerned at the very poor living conditions of children with disabilities, their lack of integration in schools and society and at prevailing societal discriminatory attitudes towards them.

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) take measures to eliminate physical and architectural barriers to the access and use of persons with disability to public buildings, transport, etc.; ...

e) establish special education programmes for disabled children and include them in the regular school system to the extent possible; ...

h) take into account the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the Committee’s recommendation adopted at its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339);

i) seek technical cooperation for the training of professional staff, including teachers, working with and for children with disabilities from, among others, UNICEF and WHO.

“The Committee welcomes the fact that social organization, customs, languages, creeds and traditions are recognized to indigenous communities in the Constitution of 1988. However, as noted by the State party, the Indian Statute promotes for an integration which is not in accordance with the principle of respect for diversity of cultures. The Committee also welcomes the fact that, according to law 10.406/02, indigenous people are no longer considered “relatively incapable citizens”. It also welcomes the efforts made by the State party to stimulate bilingual education. However, the Committee is deeply concerned by the low standard of living of indigenous children, low educational opportunities and quality of health services, and malnutrition.

“The Committee urges the State party to pursue measures to effectively address the gap in life opportunities of indigenous children. Training and awareness-raising activities should be provided to break social prejudice, in order to revert the historical logic of colonization, which jeopardizes any chance of attaining genuinely equal treatment.”

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Brunei Darussalam

(27 October 2003, CRC/C/15/Add.219, Concluding observations on initial report, paras. 48, 49 and 50)

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) review the existing policies and practice in relation to children with disabilities, taking due regard of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and of the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on the issue of “The rights of children with disabilities” (see CRC/C/69); ...

f) undertake greater efforts to promote and expand community-based rehabilitation programmes, including parent support groups, and inclusive education of children with all forms of disability....

“The Committee notes the very good education indicators, the broad scope of education in schools, encompassing a development-oriented co-curriculum besides the academic curriculum, and the intention to incorporate the Convention into school curricula, but remains concerned that: ...

b) insufficient services are provided for children with learning difficulties.

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) taking into account the Committee’s general comment No. 1 on the aims of education, include human rights education, including about children’s rights, in the curricula, particularly with respect to the development of and respect for human rights, tolerance and equality of the sexes and religious and ethnic minorities;

c) further develop services for children with learning difficulties....”

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Bulgaria

(6 June 2008, CRC/C/BGR/CO/2 Unedited version, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 24, 39, 40, 43, 44, 55, 56, 57, 58, 71 and 72)

“While noting the efforts undertaken by the State party to counter discrimination, including through the Law on Protection against Discrimination, the Committee is deeply concerned at the persistent discrimination against Roma children, as well as children living in institutions and children with disabilities, in particular with regard to access to education, healthcare and housing....

“While noting the Government’s efforts to deinstitutionalize children, and also to improve the situation of children in institutions, the Committee is concerned that limited progress has been made in reducing the large number of children, especially Roma children, placed in institutions....

“The Committee recommends that the State party, while taking into account the recommendations of the Day of General Discussion on children without Parental Care (CRC/C/153): ...

e) provide these children with mainstream education....

“The Committee is concerned at the persisting shortage of resources for the development of educational, social and health services for children with disabilities and their families in their own living environment. Furthermore, the Committee is concerned that children with disabilities are often placed in large residential institutions and that these institutions do not provide the professional competence and special equipment required. The Committee is also concerned at the lack of efforts to develop an effective monitoring and data collection systems on the situation in social care homes for children with disabilities, particularly with regard to the right of children with disabilities to education. The Committee is also concerned that Roma children with disabilities experience double discrimination.

“The Committee recommends that the State party, while taking into account the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the Committee’s General Comment No. 9 (CRC/C/GC/9) on the rights of children with disabilities, take all necessary measures to:

b) provide training for professional staff working with children with disabilities, such as medical, paramedical and related personnel, teachers and social workers;

c) establish a formal monitoring system for residential care homes for children which closely examines the right to education of children with mental and other disabilities, as well as ensure that monitoring incorporates concrete steps to follow up recommended actions, and favours the participation of civil society organizations;

d) develop and effectively apply new regulations to ensure that management of homes for children with mental disabilities is regularly evaluated in relation to securing the right to education and other rights for children living in the homes;

e) establish and implement a comprehensive data collection system which takes into consideration the number of children with disabilities (disaggregated by age, sex, and ethnic or social origin), number and categories of homes for children with mental disabilities, number of children entering and leaving the homes, information on where children are moved to, information on the number of children who have been integrated into special schools or mainstream schools....

“... The high drop-out rates, a concern of the Committee in the Concluding Observations following the Initial Report in 1997, were not reduced, so that more than 25 % of the children in rural areas do not even finish the 8th grade. In general, the quality of education and the marked urban-rural disparities are a serious concern of the Committee.

“The Committee notes the efforts of the State party to better integrate Roma children in mainstream schools, including the National Programme and the Action Plan of 2005, but regrets the lack of data about Roma children and their educational achievements and remains concerned at the limited success of the efforts resulting in the continuation of segregated schools for Roma children and high repetition and drop-out rates. The Committee welcomes the goal of including the majority of children with disabilities in general education schools and regrets that the goal could not be realized. The Committee is concerned that many of these children are still regarded as uneducable and live in special boarding schools and that schools which enrol children with disabilities do not receive additional resources to assist these children appropriately.

“The Committee welcomes that one preschool year is mandatory and free, but is concerned that preschool facilities, which, according to the State party report, have unoccupied places, are not used for preparation of children with disabilities and Roma children for school. Furthermore, the Committee is concerned at the insufficient provision of vocational education and training, including for children who dropped out of school.

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

c) strengthen its efforts to integrate Roma children into the general school system by enhanced teacher training, curriculum revisions and appropriate teaching and learning methods as well as intensified parental education and participation;

d) include children with disabilities in the general school system, provide the needed personnel and material resources to the schools in which these children are enrolled and reduce the number of schools for children with special educational needs to the unavoidable minimum taking into account the Committee's General Comment No. 9 ‘The rights of children with disabilities’ (CRC/C/GC/9);

e) expand early childhood development programmes and preschool education to more children and in particular use the mandatory year before primary school for a better preparation of children from ethnic minorities, in particular Roma children, and children with disabilities taking into account the Committee's General Comment No. 7 ‘Implementing child rights in early childhood’ (CRC/C/GC/7/Rev.1)....

“While noting that efforts are undertaken to ensure equal enjoyment of rights for Roma children as through the National Action Plan on the Decade of Roma Inclusion, the Committee remains deeply concerned at the negative attitudes and prejudices of the general public as well as about the overall situation of children of minorities and in particular Roma children, especially with regard to discrimination and disparities, poverty and their equal access to health, education, housing, employment and decent standard of living.

“The Committee urges the State party to:

a) initiate campaigns, at all levels and in all regions, aimed at addressing the negative attitudes towards the Roma in society at large, including among police and professionals;

b) strengthen its efforts to remove discrimination and to continue developing and implementing - in close collaboration with the minority communities and especially the Roma community - policies and programmes aimed at ensuring equal access to culturally appropriate services, including education; and

c) develop curricula units for children at school level, including in relation to Roma history and culture, in order to promote understanding, tolerance and respect for the rights of Roma in Bulgarian society.”

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Burkina Faso

(29 January 2010, CRC/C/BFA/CO/3-4 Advance Unedited Version, Concluding observations on third/fourth report, paras. 52, 53, 64 and 65)

“The Committee takes notes of the current adoption of a Law and a Strategy on the protection of disabled persons as well as the creation in 2005 of a multisectoral committee for the equalization of opportunities for persons with disabilities. However, while the Committee notes that efforts were made to provide children with disabilities with financial support and school opportunities, it expresses concern that children with disabilities continue to have a limited access to appropriate health care, education and job opportunities....

“While adopting its Law and Strategy on disabled persons, the Committee urges the State carefully review and implement the previous recommendations of the Committee (CRC/C/15/Add.193 para. 47) and to: ...

c) review the situation of these children in terms of their access to suitable health care, education services and employment opportunities; ...

e) strengthen policies and programmes of inclusion in regular education, train teachers and make schools accessible; ...

h) take into account the Committee’s General Comment No. 9 on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/GC/9, 2006)

“The Committee ... is however concerned that: ...

e) significant disparities persist in accessing education between provinces, urban and rural areas and between girls and boys; ...

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

e) reduce disparities among provinces in access to and full enjoyment of the right to education; ...

h) take into consideration General Comment No. 1 on the aims of education of 2001 and General Comment No.7 on Implementing child rights in early childhood of 2005.”

(9 October 2002, CRC/C/15/Add.193, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 23, 46, 47, 50 and 51)

“While noting that discrimination is prohibited under the Constitution, that acts of discrimination are an offence under the new Penal Code and that several measures have been taken to promote the rights of girls and women (establishment of the Ministry for the Advancement of Women and of the Department for the Promotion of Girls’ Education, etc.), the Committee is concerned at the persistence of de facto discrimination in the State party. In particular, the Committee is concerned at the disparities in the enjoyment of rights, e.g. in education, experienced by children belonging to the most vulnerable groups, among others, girls, children with disabilities, children born out of wedlock, children born of incest and children living in rural areas.

“While noting the plans for a national rehabilitation policy and a national plan of action, the Committee is concerned at the lack of statistical data on children with disabilities in the State party, at the situation of children with physical and mental disabilities and, in particular, at the limited specialized health care, education and employment possibilities available to them. The Committee is concerned further that poor health conditions and poverty are leading to an increase in the number of children with disabilities.

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) ensure the use of adequate and comprehensive data in the development of policies and programmes for children with disabilities;

b) review the situation of these children in terms of their access to suitable health care, education services and employment opportunities;

c) take note of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96, annex) and of the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339); ...

e) strengthen policies and programmes of inclusion in regular education, train teachers and make schools accessible....

“The Committee ... remains deeply concerned at the ... important regional disparities.... The Committee also welcomes the efforts undertaken by the State party to increase the school enrolment of girls, but remains concerned at the disparities in school enrolment between boys and girls....

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) ensure that all children, especially girls, wherever they live, including the least developed areas, have equal access to educational opportunities; ...

h) take measures to enable children with disabilities to have access to regular schools and to ensure that these children have access to formal and vocational educational opportunities....”

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Burundi

(1 October 2010, CRC-C-BDI-CO-2 Concluding Observations: Burundi Paras. 29, 30, 50, 51, 64, 65, 78 and 79 )

“The Committee notes as positive that article 22 of the Constitution incorporates the principle of non-discrimination. It remains concerned however that de facto discrimination of children prevails and is tolerated in the State party, in particular vis-à-vis girls with regard to access to education and succession rights as well as children born out of wedlock, albino children, children belonging to the Batwa minority and those placed into kafala families.”

“The Committee also encourages the State party to review legislative instruments as well as to adopt a comprehensive strategy, including awareness-raising, to eliminate discrimination on any grounds and against all vulnerable groups especially the girl child with regard to succession rights and access to education, children born out of wedlock, albino children, children belonging to the Batwa minority and those placed into kafala families.”

“Noting the efforts by the State party, the Committee is concerned at the situation of children with physical and mental disabilities, and in particular the limited access to education and health care services …”

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

      (a) Revise and adopt legislation in order to fully protect all children with disabilities, and establish a monitoring system, which carefully records progress made and identifies shortcomings in implementation;
      (b) Provide community-based services that focus on enhancing the quality of life of children with disabilities, meeting their basic needs and ensuring their inclusion and participation;
      (c) Carry out awareness-raising campaigns to combat existing discriminatory attitudes and sensitize the public about the rights and special needs of children with disabilities, encourage their inclusion in society and promote respect for the right of children and their parents to be heard;
      (d) Make every effort to provide programmes and services for children with disabilities with adequate human and financial resources;
      (e) Equip schools with the necessary facilities for the inclusive education of children with disabilities and ensure that they can choose their preferred school or move between regular schools and special needs schools according to their best interests;
      (f) Provide training for professional staff working with children with disabilities including teachers, social workers, health care professionals; and
      (g) Take into account, in this regard, the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly res. 48/96) and the Committee’s general comment No. 9 (2006) on the rights of children with disabilities.”

“The Committee appreciates the Government’s decision on free primary education for all children in 2005 which has increased considerably the enrolment rates. However, the Committee remains seriously concerned about:

      (a) The fact that the enrolment in early childhood education and pre-school remains low;
      (b) The limitation of compulsory school education to six years, the poor primary school attendance and completion rate and the low secondary school enrolment rate;
      (c) The large number of school dropouts, especially of girls;
      (d) The lack of vocational education and training, including for dropout children;
      (e) The overcrowded schools and shortage of classroom materials; and
      (f) The insufficient number of trained teachers and available school facilities.”

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

      (a) Ensure access to and completion of at least primary school and progressively expand compulsory education to secondary school up to grade 10 (16 years) , in all regions of the State party and pay particular attention to girls;
      (b) Make quality early childhood education and pre-school accessible to all children, including children growing up under poor and disadvantaged living conditions;
      (c) Create and strengthen promotion of vocational education and training, including for children who have dropped out of primary or secondary schools, especially for girls;
      (d) Improve the quality of education through, inter alia, revising outdated curricula and decreasing the student-teacher ratio, ensuring at the same time that teachers are well-trained and fully qualified and that they receive adequate salaries;
      (e) Include human rights and child rights in the curricula of schools; and
      (f) Take into account the Committee’s general comment No. 1 (2001) on the aims of education.”

“The Committee remains concerned that Batwa children suffer from discrimination in relation to the enjoyment of their rights, including the rights to health care, food, survival and development. The Committee is particularly concerned at the discrimination faced by the Batwa girls who do not attend school or complete primary or secondary school.”

“The Committee urges the State party urgently to take measures to strengthen the representation of Batwa in national policy-making and to elaborate a plan of action to protect the rights of Batwa children, including in particular those rights of persons belonging to minorities and indigenous peoples. The Committee recommends that the State party:

      (a) Take all measures to ensure that Batwa children, especially Batwa girls benefit from the policy of free primary education including the possible creation of a fund to cover essential items for education (such as school materials, clothing and nutritional support);
      (b) Create effective policies and programmes to improve the marginalised situation of Batwa girls; and
      (c) Collect accurate data disaggregated by ethnicity and gender in order to develop and monitor effective programmes for Batwa girls.”

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C

Cameroon

(29 January 2010, CRC/C/CMR/CO/2 Advance Unedited Version, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 27, 51, 52, 65, 66, 67, 68 and 82)

“The Committee is deeply concerned at the persistence of de facto discrimination among children in the enjoyment of their rights. It is especially concerned that girls, indigenous children, children with disabilities, refugee children, children from poor rural areas, and children in street situations suffer particular disadvantages with regard to education, access to health and social services....

“In light of the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the Committee’s General Comment No. 9 on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/GC/9, 2006), the Committee recommends that the State party: ...

c) increase human, technical and financial resources allocated to children with disabilities focusing on the development of community based services which could better reach families with children with disabilities in all areas and provide basic education, social and health services;

d) effectively provide children with disabilities with access to adequate social and health services, as well as to quality and inclusive education;

e) continue its effort to carry out awareness campaigns to sensitize the public about the rights and special needs of children with disabilities and encourage their inclusion in education and in society; and

f) provide training for professional staff working with children with disabilities, such as teachers, social workers and medical, paramedical and related personnel.

“The Committee ... remains concerned over ... the significant gender and regional disparities in access to education, particularly in the Far North, North, Adamoua, East and Southern regions....

“The Committee strongly recommends that the State party:

b) ensure access to education, including early childhood education, in all regions of the State party and pay particular attention to girls and all vulnerable groups of children, including indigenous children and children without birth certificates;

c) undertake impact assessments of educational programmes and strategies and take corrective measures where necessary to redress disparities between children, in particular gender and regional disparities; ...

j) take into account the Committee’s General Comment No. 1 (CRC/GC/2001/1) on the aims of education.

“The Committee ... commends the State party for the measures taken in cooperation with the UNHCR to ensure birth registration and schooling of refugee children.... However, the Committee ... is also concerned at ... the limited access of refugees to health services, education....

“The Committee recommends the State party to strengthen the protection and assistance of refugee children and to: ...

b) take necessary measures, including allocation of adequate resources, to prevent and combat malnutrition among refugee children and ensure that they have adequate access to essential health services, education, sanitation as well as safe drinking water....

“The Committee ... takes note of the State party’s continuous efforts to improve the situation of disadvantaged indigenous children, particularly in the areas of education, social welfare and health, and the initiative to develop a law on the rights of indigenous peoples....”

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Canada

(27 October 2003, CRC/C/15/Add.215, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 21, 23, 44, 45, 47 and 58)

“The Committee notes positive developments with respect to measures to promote and protect cultural diversity and specific legislative measures regarding discrimination, including the Multiculturalism Act, in particular as it bears upon the residential school system, the Employment Equity Act, and the amendment to the Criminal Code introducing racial discrimination as an aggravating circumstance (see also the 2002 annual report of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD) (A/57/18), paras. 315-343). However, the Committee joins CERD in its concerns, in particular as they relate to children, such as those relating to the Indian Act, ... and to the exclusion from the school system of children of migrants with no status....

“The Committee, while noting reservations expressed by Canada on the Declaration and Programme of Action adopted at the 2001 World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, recommends that specific information be included in the next periodic report on the measures and programmes relevant to the Convention on the Rights of the Child undertaken by the State party to follow up on the Durban Declaration and Programme of Action and taking account of general comment No. 1 on article 29, paragraph 1, of the Convention (aims of education).

“The Committee values the exemplary literacy rates and high level of basic education in the State party and welcomes the numerous initiatives to promote quality education, both in Canada and at the international level. The Committee is in particular encouraged by initiatives to raise the standard of education of Aboriginals living on reserves.... The Committee nevertheless reiterates the concern of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (A/57/18, para. 337) about allegations that children of migrants with no status are being excluded from school in some provinces. Furthermore, the Committee is concerned about ... the high dropout rate of Aboriginal children and the availability of instruction in both official languages only “where numbers warrant”.

“The Committee recommends that the State party further improve the quality of education throughout the State party in order to achieve the goals of article 29, paragraph 1, of the Convention and the Committee’s general comment No. 1 on the aims of education by, inter alia:

a) ensuring that free quality primary education that is sensitive to the cultural identity of every child is available and accessible to all children, with particular attention to children in rural communities, Aboriginal children and refugees or asylum-seekers, as well as children from other disadvantaged groups and those who need special attention, including in their own language; ...

c) ratifying the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Convention against Discrimination in Education of 1960....

“In accordance with the principles and provisions of the Convention, especially articles 2, 3, 22 and 37, and with respect to children, whether seeking asylum or not, the Committee recommends that the State party: ...

e) ensure that refugee and asylum-seeking children have access to basic services such as education and health and that there is no discrimination in benefit entitlements for asylum-seeking families that could affect children....

“The Committee welcomes the Statement of Reconciliation made by the Federal Government expressing Canada’s profound regret for historic injustices committed against Aboriginal people, in particular within the residential school system....”

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Chad

(January 2009, CRC/C/TCD/CO/2 Unedited version, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 30, 31, 55, 56, 67 and 68)

“The Committee ... notes with regret that while articles 13 and 14 of the State party’s Constitution affirm the principle of non – discrimination, including equality between the sexes, de facto discrimination between boys and girls exists, particularly in the areas of education and succession and inheritance.

“The Committee urges the State party to continue and strengthen its efforts to eradicate all discriminatory laws from its legislation. In particular, the Committee urges the State party to adopt legislation with a view to ensuring that the practical application of the Constitution’s provisions guaranteeing the principle of non-discrimination are in full compliance with article 2 of the Convention. The Committee also encourages the State party to adopt a comprehensive strategy, including awareness-raising, to eliminate discrimination on any grounds and against all vulnerable groups, in particular regarding education and succession and inheritance rights.

“The Committee notes that a National Action Plan for disabled persons is in the process of being elaborated. The Committee welcomes the State party’s indication that registration for children with disabilities in public schools is free and in private schools is at a reduced cost. The Committee is concerned however, at reports that children with disabilities are often discriminated against and cannot go to school.

“In light of the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the Committee’s general comment No. 9 on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/GC/9, 2006), the Committee recommends that the State party: ...

d) carry out awareness campaigns to sensitize the public about the rights and special needs of children with disabilities and encourage their inclusion in education and in society;

e) provide training for professional staff working with children with disabilities, such as medical, paramedical and related personnel, teachers and social workers; and

f) consider signing and ratifying the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol.

“The Committee notes with appreciation that the right to education is set out in the Chadian Constitution and welcomes the adoption of a 10-year Support Programme for Reform of the Educational System (2004-2015) ... the Committee notes with concern ... the low rate of school attendance of girls as compared to boys ....

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) ensure access to education, including early childhood education, in all regions of the State party and pay particular attention to girls and all vulnerable groups of children, including nomadic children and children in remote areas; ...

c) make every effort to ensure that schools are safe places for children, in particular for girls, and that they are free from sexual and physical violence and recruitment into armed conflict; ...

h) take into account the Committee’s general comment No. 1 (CRC/GC/2001/1) on the aims of education.”

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Chile

(23 April 2007, CRC/C/CHL/CO/3, Concluding observations on third report, paras. 29, 31, 51, 53, 61, 62, 63, 64, 73 and 74)

“The Committee recognises the policy measures undertaken to advance the implementation of the principle of non-discrimination, in particular in the areas of health services, however remains concerned that certain vulnerable groups, including indigenous, migrant and refugee children, children with disabilities, as well as children from disadvantaged socio-economic backgrounds and those living in rural areas, continue to be victims of discrimination, particularly in their reduced access to education. The Committee further notes the prevalence of gender based discrimination and that pregnancy continues to result in the exclusion of girls from educational establishments, despite an explicit prohibition of discrimination on this ground....

“The Committee also request that specific information be included in the next periodic report on the measures and programmes relevant to the Convention on the Rights of the Child undertaken by the State party, to provide special protection to vulnerable groups and to follow up on the Declaration and Programme of Action adopted at the 2001 World Conference Against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, also taking into account General Comment No. 1 on article 19, paragraph 1 of the Convention (aims of education).

“The Committee is concerned that the resources available for children with disabilities are inadequate, in particular in order to guarantee their right to education.

“The Committee recommends that the State party, taking into account general comment No.9 (2006) on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/GC/9):

a) ensure implementation of the Standard Rules for Equalizing the Possibilities for Persons with Disabilities, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 23 December 1993;

b) sign and ratify the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol once open for ratification;

c) pursue efforts to ensure that children with disabilities may exercise their right to education to the maximum extent possible....

“The Committee ...notes the affirmative action undertaken to improve equal access to education, however it is concerned that access for children belonging to vulnerable groups, such as indigenous peoples, refugees and children living in poverty and rural areas is still inadequate.

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

c) ensure the expansion of the bilingual intercultural programme for indigenous peoples and maintain consultations with indigenous communities in order to evaluate the programme....

“... The Committee is also concerned that refugee, asylum-seeking and migrant children ... face de facto discrimination in exercising their right to education....

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

c) ensure that refugee, asylum-seeking and migrant children are guaranteed speedy processing of their registration and identity documents and that they not be denied access to health services and education during this period....

“... The Committee is concerned over the high level of correlation between poverty and indigenous origins and the de facto discrimination indigenous children continue to face, in particular in the areas of education and health. The Committee welcomes the positive steps taken to establish a bilingual education programme, however it notes that the coverage and resources are limited and that dropout rates remain high....

“The Committee recommends the State party: ...

c) take affirmative measures to ensure that indigenous children gain de facto enjoyment of their rights, in particular in the area of education and health....”

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China with Hong Kong and Macau

(24 November 2005, CRC/C/CHN/CO/2, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 32, 75, 77, 81 and 82)

“The Committee recommends that on the mainland the State party strengthen efforts to eliminate discrimination against girls; children infected with or affected by HIV/AIDS; children with disabilities; Tibetan, Uighur and Hui children and children belonging to other ethnic and religious minorities; internal migrant children and other vulnerable groups by:

a) ensuring that these children have equal access to basic services, including health, education and other social services, and that services used by these children are allocated sufficient financial and human resources....

“While noting efforts made by the State party in mainland China, the Committee is concerned about remaining disparities in access to and availability of education, which negatively affect girls, children with learning difficulties, ethnic minority children, children living in rural areas and western provinces, and migrant children....

“The Committee recommends that in mainland China, the State party: ...

b) increase the allocation of resources to education in step with increases in GDP, as directed by the Education Law, and target those resources towards ensuring that all children, in particular girls, children with learning difficulties, and ethnic minority and migrant children, complete nine years of compulsory education and have equal access to early childhood education and development programmes;

c) promote the development of flexible learning systems so that children who have dropped out of school, in particular because of poverty or migration, are able to complete compulsory education and earn appropriate accreditation through non-formal channels, and also ensure the availability and accessibility of suitable technical and vocational education and training;

d) ensure that all teaching and learning materials for the primary and secondary level are also available in ethnic minority languages and with culturally sensitive content....

“With regard to the Hong Kong SAR, the Committee notes that refugee children and undocumented migrant children are not guaranteed access to education.

“The Committee recommends that the State party extend all human rights guarantees in its Constitution and in the Convention to all children within its jurisdiction on both the mainland and the SARs, including refugees, asylum-seekers and other undocumented migrants. In particular, the Committee recommends that the State party: ...

c) amend legislation and regulations to ensure that all refugee, asylum-seeking or undocumented migrant children in the Hong Kong SAR are able to attend school without undue delay.”

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Colombia

(8 June 2006, CRC/C/COL/CO/3, Concluding observations on third report, paras. 35, 37, 64, 76, 77, 94 and 95)

“The Committee is deeply concerned that widespread discrimination exists towards certain vulnerable groups, such as displaced children, Afro-Colombian and indigenous children and children living in rural and remote areas. Their ability to access education and health facilities is severely reduced by disproportionate allocation of resources....

“The Committee also requests that specific information be included, in the next periodic report, on the measures and programmes relevant to the Convention on the Rights of the Child undertaken by the State party to provide special protection to vulnerable groups including girls, indigenous and Afro-Colombian children and to follow up on the Declaration and Programme of Action adopted at the World Conference Against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, also taking into account general comment No. 1 on article 29, paragraph 1, of the Convention (aims of education).

“The Committee recommends that the State party, taking into account the recommendations adopted by the Committee on its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (see CRC/C/69):

a) ensure implementation of the Standard Rules for Equalizing the Possibilities for Persons with Disabilities, adopted by the General Assembly on 23 December 1993;

b) pursue efforts to ensure that children with disabilities may exercise their right to education to the maximum extent possible....

“... The Committee continues to have a number of serious concerns with regards to the implementation of the right to education, including the following: ...

e) the policy of etnoeducacion (bilingual education) for indigenous communities lacks coverage and is often done without sufficient consultation with the communities;

f) female students suffer discrimination and termination of their schooling as a consequence of early pregnancies and marriages. Schools continue to apply expulsion on the grounds of pregnancy despite a Constitutional Court ruling that such gender-based discrimination constitutes an infringement on the right to education....

“The Committee urges that national legislation be amended to clearly reflect the right to free primary education and also recommends the State party to: ...

d) increase efforts to eliminate the discrimination in access to education by monitoring the effective abolition of enrolment fees and other costs in order to counteract high dropout and low completion rates. The Committee recommends the use of proactive measures, such as additional support to compensate for hidden costs, in order to combat the pervasive discrimination and social exclusion which affects vulnerable groups, such as children in rural areas, internally displaced, Afro-Colombian and indigenous children;

e) provide further resources and conduct prior consultations with indigenous communities in order to design and effectively provide them with bilingual and culturally sensitive education;

f) effectively monitor discrimination against female students who are expelled due to pregnancy and to sanction educational institutions that fail to comply....

“... Despite an established programme for bilingual education (etnoeducacion) the coverage is limited and illiteracy rates high....

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

c) take affirmative measures to ensure that children of ethnic minorities gain de facto enjoyment of their rights, in particular in the area of health and education....”

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Costa Rica

(21 September 2005, CRC/C/15/Add.266, Concluding observations on third report, paras. 18, 19, 20, 39, 40, 45, 57 and 58)

“The Committee welcomes the elaboration of the first National Development Plan for Costa Rica’s Indigenous People, the translation into indigenous languages of the Childhood and Adolescence Code, the Law against Domestic Violence and the Law on Responsible Paternity, as well as the incorporation of the rights of indigenous people into the National Plan for Children and Adolescents. The Committee is concerned however at the limited access of indigenous children, migrant children and those living in rural areas, to basic education and health services, and at their low standard of living. ... While welcoming the revocation by resolution No. 008857-99 of articles 6 and 7 of Executive Decree (Decreto ejecutivo) No. 21989-MEP-MTSS, the Committee is concerned at information received whereby migrant children are still neither eligible for scholarships, nor entitled to take part in students’ councils.

“The Committee encourages the State party to continue to pay due attention to the needs of indigenous people by taking appropriate measures to address the high rate of infant mortality among the indigenous communities, and to substantially increase their level of education and standard of living, and endorses the recommendation of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination in that regard (CERD/C/60/CO/3, para. 11). The Committee further recommends that the State party provide information on the number of migrant children who benefited from scholarships since the adoption of resolution No. 008857-99. In addition, the Committee recommends that the State party take steps to disseminate the contents of the resolution to the public at large. The Committee also recommends that the State party take appropriate measures to ensure the right of migrant children to take part in students’ councils. The State party should provide information in its next periodic report on the action taken to protect children of migrant families in irregular situations against discrimination as recommended by the Committee in its previous concluding observations.

“The Committee requests that specific information be included in the next periodic report on the measures and programmes relevant to the Convention on the Rights of the Child undertaken by the State party to follow up on the Durban Declaration and Programme of Action adopted at the World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance and taking account of the Committee’s general comment No. 1 (2001) on the aims of education.

“The Committee notes the steps taken by the State party to strengthen the access to health services and information for children with disabilities, and train professionals working in public health institutions on the rights of disabled children, as well as the efforts to include children with disabilities in regular school, the prenatal and post-natal screening programmes. The Committee remains concerned, however, at the limited coverage of this progress to the economically disadvantaged and rural populations.

“The Committee recommends that the State party continue to expand programmes for children with disabilities including the prenatal and post-natal screening programmes, and ensure their access, inter alia through mobile clinics, to economically disadvantaged people in rural areas. The Committee further recommends that the State party strengthen its policy to integrate children in regular schools.

“The Committee takes note of the efforts made by the State party to increase the level of school infrastructure at the country level, and ensure that all children, including refugee children, have access to education. ...

Although courses and institutions for technical and vocational training were expanded, the Committee regrets ... the low completion rate of secondary school, in particular in rural areas, especially of deprived children and indigenous children, as well as the lack of school infrastructure in remote areas of the country.

“With respect to indigenous communities, the Committee takes note of the State party’s efforts to increase the number of schools providing bilingual education. It is however concerned at the insufficient number of indigenous teachers and schools, and at the fact that education does not fully take into account indigenous culture.

“The Committee recommends that the State party continue to increase the number of indigenous schools and adequately trained indigenous teachers, and ensure the right of indigenous children to learn to read and write in their own language through methods adapted to their own culture....”

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Croatia

(1 October 2004, CRC/C/15/Add.243 Unedited version, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 22, 57, 58, 60,61 and 62)

“The Committee reiterates its recommendation that the State party should take measures aimed at developing a culture of tolerance in the society at large through all possible channels, including the schools, the media and the law.

“While noting the efforts made by the State party with regard to education, e.g. the 2001 Law on the Changes and Amendments of the Primary Education Law, it remains concerned about the different access to education of children belonging to minority and the most vulnerable groups, including Roma children, children living in poverty, children with disabilities and foreign children, which hampers their full enjoyment of a system of education adequate to their values and identity....

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) take all necessary measures to ensure that articles 28 and 29 of the Convention are fully implemented, in particular with regard to children belonging to the most vulnerable groups (i.e. minority groups, children living in poverty, etc.);

b) ensure the implementation of the National Programme for Roma, providing it with adequate human and financial resources and with periodic evaluation of its progress; ...

g) take the necessary measures to integrate children with disabilities in the mainstream education system, including vocational education, and in society....

“... The Committee expresses its concern about the difficult access to education and health care for refugee and internally displaced children.

“The Committee recommends that the State party ensure the effective implementation of the new Asylum Law and that refugee and asylum-seeking children have access to basic services such as education and health, and that there is no discrimination in benefit entitlements for asylum-seeking families that could negatively affect children.

“The Committee ... recommends that effective measures be undertaken to ensure that displaced children have equal access to education and health care.”

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Cyprus

(2 July 2003, CRC/C/15/Add.205, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 27, 29, 51, 52, 53 and 54)

“The Committee is encouraged by positive developments, as noted by the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD) in August 2001, with respect to legislative reform. However, the Committee reiterates the concern of CERD relating to the lack of legal provisions expressly outlawing racial discrimination by private persons in education and employment....

“The Committee requests that specific information be included in the next periodic report on the measures and programmes relevant to the Convention on the Rights of the Child undertaken by the State party to follow up on the Declaration and Programme of Action adopted at the 2001 World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, and taking account of general comment No. 1 on article 29 (1) of the Convention (aims of education).

“The Committee ... is concerned about the broad scope of special schools for children with physical, mental or emotional needs, which, inter alia is not conducive to the integration of those children into mainstream schools.

“The Committee encourages the State party to strengthen its efforts to include children with special needs wherever possible in mainstream schools, in accordance with article 23 (3) of the Convention. In this respect, the Committee draws the attention of the State party to the Standard Rules for the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities.

“The Committee ... remains concerned about difficulties that some children who have been given temporary protection may be experiencing in access to public education....

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) introduce further amendments to the Refugee Law in order to ensure access to public educational facilities to persons afforded temporary protection....”

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Czech Republic

(18 March 2003, CRC/C/15/Add.201, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 28, 48, 49, 56, 67 and 68)

“The Committee welcomes the Method Instruction of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports on education against expressions of racism, xenophobia and intolerance. The Committee also notes the numerous initiatives of the State party to counter discrimination in education, in particular against children belonging to the Roma minority, including the adoption of legislation to counter discrimination in employment (Act No. 167/1999 Coll.)....

“The Committee welcomes information on the national plan to equalize opportunities for citizens with medical disabilities and is encouraged by the growing number of children with disabilities who are integrated into mainstream education....

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

c) in the light of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96, annex) and the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on “The rights of children with disabilities” (CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339), further encourage their integration into the regular educational system and inclusion into society, including by providing special training to teachers and by making schools more accessible.

“The Committee ... recognizes the cooperation with the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR) in the drafting process of the new Foster Care Law defining modalities of education and accommodation for foreigners who are also unaccompanied minors. However, the Committee remains concerned that: ...

c) compulsory school attendance is not always observed.

“The Committee welcomes the implementation of strategies aimed at promoting Roma children’s rights to health-care services and inclusion in education. The Committee also welcomes Roma NGO participation in promoting the rights of their children. However, it remains concerned at the negative attitudes and prejudices among the general public, media representations, incidents of police brutality, and discriminatory behaviour on the part of some persons working with and for children, including teachers and doctors.

“In accordance with article 2 of the Convention, the Committee recommends that the State party:

a) initiate campaigns, at all levels and in all regions, aimed at addressing the negative attitudes towards Roma in society at large, and in particular among authorities such as the police, and professionals providing health care, education and other social services;

b) based on the evaluation of previous strategies, develop and implement a comprehensive proactive strategy for the improvement of access to primary health care, education and social welfare services, in cooperation with Roma NGO partners, and targeting the whole Roma child population....”

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D

Democratic People’s Republic of Korea

(1 July 2004, CRC/C/15/Add.239, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 48, 49 and 55)

“The Committee notes with appreciation the new legislation enacted in 2003 to protect the rights of disabled persons and the active work undertaken since 1998 by the Korean Association for Supporting the Disabled, including its first survey. It remains nevertheless concerned at the very poor living conditions of the disabled, their lack of integration in schools and society at large, the lack of recovery measures, and at prevailing discriminatory attitudes toward them in society.

“In line with the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the recommendations adopted by the Committee at its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/69), it is recommended that the State party:

a) establish a comprehensive and inclusive policy for children with disabilities; ...

d) establish special education programmes for disabled children and integrate them in the regular school system to the extent possible; ...

f) increase resources, both financial and human, for special education, including vocational training, and the support given to families of children with disabilities;

(g) Seek technical cooperation from, among others, UNICEF and WHO for the training of professional staff, including teachers working with children with disabilities.

“The Committee welcomes the recent efforts of the State party to increase the quality of its education system and encourages that these efforts be pursued. It also recommends that the State party: ...

b) ensure that female pupils have the same opportunities as male pupils to access higher education;

c) sensitize the general public and children in particular to ensure that traditional gender stereotypes do not dictate the subjects studied by male and female pupils....”

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Denmark

(23 November 2005, CRC/C/DNK/CO/3, Concluding observations on third report, paras. 39, 48 and 49)

“The Committee recommends that the State party take all necessary measures to: ...

b) ensure that equal accesses to services is provided to children with disabilities, taking into consideration the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96); and

c) provide equal educational opportunities for children with disabilities, including by providing the necessary support and ensuring that teachers are trained to educate children with disabilities within the regular schools.

“The Committee welcomes various measures undertaken by the State party, including the Working Group on Improved Integration and the campaign “All young people are needed”, which aim to ensure that all young people, irrespective of their ethnic background, enjoy equal opportunities in the Danish education system.

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) take the necessary measures to ensure that all children have access to primary and secondary education to all children; and

b) strengthen efforts to bridge the racial disparity in education, giving special attention to promoting the education of ethnic minorities.”

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Djibouti

(3 October 2008, CRC/C/DJI/CO/2 Unedited version, Concluding observations on second

“The Committee welcomes efforts to ensure that all children have access to education, health and other social services, in particular, through the construction of schools and health centres in rural localities, awareness-raising campaigns for equal access to schools of girls, and the repeal of provisions reserving school for children born of Djiboutian parents. Nevertheless, the Committee regrets that disparities remain, in particular with regard to children belonging to vulnerable groups, including children living on the streets, migrant children, refugee children and children with disabilities.

“The Committee reiterates its previous recommendation (CRC/C/15/Add.131, paragraph 28) that the State party continue and strengthen its efforts to ensure full implementation of the principle of non-discrimination and full compliance with article 2 of the Convention and that it take measures to address instances of discrimination that impact on equal access of all children to education, health and other social services....

“The Committee notes with appreciation the draft law relating to the social inclusion of persons with disabilities and the integration in the Educational Plan of Action 2006-2008 of measures in support of the refurbishing of academic establishments that is more appropriate for persons with disabilities....

“In light of the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the Committee’s general comment No. 9 on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/GC/9, 2006), the Committee recommends that the State party:

a) take all necessary measures to ensure the implementation of legislation relating to the rights of children with disabilities and consider adopting specific legislation on the issue;

b) make every effort to provide community-based programmes and services, in particular specialized services, for all children with disabilities and ensure that such services receive adequate human and financial resources, with a particular focus on the right to education of children with disabilities;...

d) provide training for professional staff working with children with disabilities, such as medical, paramedical and related personnel, teachers and social workers; and

e) consider ratifying the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol.

“The Committee ... expresses its concern that, with increasing age, the majority of children do not go to school and gender disparities, reflecting societal attitudes and poverty, remain a concern. The Committee is also concerned about regional disparities.

“The Committee recommends that the State party, taking into account its general comment No. 1 (CRC/GC/2001/1) on the aims of education:

a) ensure that schools covering the years of compulsory education (primary and middle school) are accessible to all children; ...

c) continue efforts to diminish regional and socio-cultural disparities in the full enjoyment of the right to education at all levels of the educational system, particularly those related to gender;

i) expand vocational education and training in regular schools and in special training centres, including for children who have dropped out of school.

“... The Committee is concerned that no systematic measures are undertaken by the State party to ensure that refugee children have access to healthcare, education and other services.

“The Committee recommends that the State party take all measures to ensure the protection of the rights of refugee children both inside and outside refugee camps and their access to social services, particularly health and education services....”

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Dominica

(30 June 2004, CRC/C/15/Add.238, Concluding observations on initial report, paras. 36, 37, 42, 43 and 49)

“The Committee is concerned about children with disabilities who often suffer from societal discrimination, and that a significant proportion of them do not attend school or participate in social and cultural life.

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) formulate a strategy that includes appropriate teacher training, to ensure that all children with disabilities have access to education and, wherever possible, that they are integrated into the mainstream education system;

c) take note of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96, annex) and of the Committee's recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339).

“... the Committee is deeply concerned about the quality of education, access to education by pregnant girls and teenage mothers and the high drop-out rate, in particular among boys.

“The Committee recommends that the State party, in the light of the Committee's General Comment No. 1 (2001) on the aims of education: ...

b) seek to implement further participatory measures to encourage children, especially boys, to stay in school during the period of compulsory education; take further measures to facilitate the access to education of children from all groups in society, particularly children living in poverty; ...

d) provide education opportunities for pregnant girls and teenagers mothers so that they can complete their education....

“The Committee acknowledges the various measures undertaken with regard to the Carib Indian children. However, the Committee is concerned about the limited enjoyment of their rights; particularly with regard to their access to education and health owing to widespread poverty.”

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Dominican Republic

(1 February 2008, CRC/C/DOM/CO/2 Unedited version, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 27, 29, 58, 59, 70, 71, 72 and 73)

“The Committee ... is seriously concerned that children of Haitian immigrants and Haitian descendants have restricted access to education, health and social services to which all children on the territory of the Dominican Republic are equally entitled according to the Convention....

“The Committee also requests that specific information be included in the next periodic report on the measures and programmes relevant to the Convention on the Rights of the Child undertaken by the State party to provide special protection to vulnerable groups and to follow up on the Declaration and Programme of Action adopted at the 2001 World Conference Against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, also taking into account general comment No. 1 (2001) on the aims of education and general comment No. 5 (2003) on general measures of implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child.

“The Committee notes ... the programmes and initiatives for children with disabilities, including the funding of special education centres for children with disabilities which have led to relatively high attendance rates in some provinces, but is concerned that services in other provinces, inter alia San Juan de la Maguana and San Jose de Ocoa, are scarcely only available, Furthermore, the Committee is concerned that the capacities of many children with disabilities are not promoted in an appropriate way and that these children are not included in the regular educational system to the extent possible....

“The Committee recommends that the State party, take into account the General Comment No. 9 (2006) on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/GC/9) and

a) ensure the implementation of the Standard Rules for Equalizing the Possibilities for Persons with Disabilities, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 23 December 1993;

b) strengthen efforts to ensure the right to education of children with disabilities to the maximum extent possible everywhere in the Dominican Republic....

“The Committee recommends that the State party ratify the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol, both signed on 30 March 2007.

“The Committee welcomes the clear improvements that have taken place in the area of education but is concerned that not all children are enrolled in primary school, in particular children of the migrant population and children living in remote areas.... The Committee also regrets the low secondary school enrolment and is concerned about the lower enrolment of boys compared to girls at this school level and the early termination of school attendance by pregnant girls who are not encouraged to continue education....

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) strengthen efforts to enrol all children in school, including children of the migrant population and children in remote areas and to reduce dropout rates in order to ensure the right to education for all children living on the territory of the Dominican Republic;

c) places increased emphasis on boys completing their secondary education and encourage the high number of girls leaving the educational system due to pregnancy to complete their education.

“The Committee notes that children are allowed to enrol in primary school up to sixth grade without having to show birth certificates but is seriously concern at information that this welcomed regulation often still has discriminatory effect on children of Haitian or of mixed parenthood....

“The Committee recommends that the State party

a) expand its year of ‘initial education’ to all children living in the Dominican Republic, including migrant children and children in remote areas;

b) guarantee the enrolment in schools on all levels to children who cannot present a birth certificate and make sure they are not discriminated in practice.”

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E

Ecuador

(29 January 2010, CRC/C/EDU/CO/4 Advance Unedited Version, Concluding observations on fourth report, paras. 56, 57, 64, 65, 66, 67, 82 and 83)

“While welcoming that the Constitution (articles 50 and 53) guarantees full social integration and equal opportunities for children with disabilities, as well as the Ecuador without Barriers Programme (Programa Ecuador sin Barreras), and that children with disabilities have been included in mainstream education, the Committee is concerned at the lack of support provided to the families and at the high cost for the family of treating children with disabilities.

“In light of art. 23 of the Convention, the Committee’s general comment No. 9 (2006) on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/GC/9) and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the Committee recommends that the State party take all necessary measures to protect and promote the rights of children with disabilities, including access to education....

“The Committee ... is however concerned at the still high dropout rates, especially of indigenous girls.... It also notes with concern that the low completion rate in secondary education, especially among indigenous children and pregnant girls, point to the inadequate quality of education. The Committee is further concerned that children of irregular migrant workers do not have access to the educational system.

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) improve the quality of education and take all measures to ensure that children complete primary and secondary school by addressing the reasons behind non-completion of schooling. In doing so, ensure that the Millennium Educational Units are the centre of a network aiming at reforming all schools at district level rather than diverting resources from the application of mainstream education....

b) address disparities more effectively by allocating specific budget and long-term support targeting the most deprived children, namely indigenous children and girls in rural areas, paying attention to alternative informal education and ensuring vocational training leading both to employment and/or to further technical education; ...

f) provide access to school for all children, irrespective of their legal status in the State party, paying special attention to the children of migrants and to migrant unaccompanied children; ...

h) take into account the Committee’s general comment No. 1 (2001) on the aims of education (CRC/GC/2001/1).

“While welcoming the new Constitutional recognition of the right to asylum and the rights of refugees, in line with international human rights instruments, the Committee is concerned at the situation of asylum-seeking and refugee children in the State party, inter alia, their inadequate access to education, despite legislation explicitly guaranteeing the access of refugee children to the national education system....

“The Committee recommends that the State party adopt legislative or other measures to protect asylum-seeking and refugee children, in particular those who are unaccompanied or separated. In this respect it should take into account the Committee’s general comment No. 6 (2005) on the treatment of unaccompanied and separated children outside their country of origin (CRC/GC/2005/6). It further recommends ensuring that asylum-seeking and refugee children have an adequate standard of living, including water and food, as well as access to health care services and schools without discrimination.

“The Committee welcomes the constitutional definition of Ecuador as a plurinational and intercultural State as well as the participatory process and framework of understanding that has produced the Agreement between the State and Indigenous Peoples and Nationalities for Children as well as the Plan for Good Living from the Beginning of Life, which encompasses the Minimum Agenda for Indigenous Children of Ecuador. It also welcomes current efforts to define and implement local goals for protection and promotion of indigenous children’s rights in 54 cantons. Nevertheless, and in line with Art. 30 of the Convention and having noted the serious breaches to the principle of non-discrimination as they affect indigenous children and girls of all ethnic origins, it remains concerned at the insufficient application of the intercultural bilingual education system and the low budgetary allocation per capita to the educational system in provinces with majority indigenous population, and the lack of information on its evaluation....

“The Committee recommends that the State party take all necessary measures to protect the rights of indigenous children, respect their culture and guarantee their enjoyment of the rights enshrined in the national constitution, domestic law and in the Convention.... The Committee encourages the State party to continue strengthening the intercultural and bilingual education, paying due attention to the culture of indigenous children in accordance with article 30 of the Convention.”

(13 September 2005, CRC/C/15/Add.262, Concluding observations on second/third report, paras. 49, 50, 59, 60, 64, 73 and 74)

“While welcoming the establishment of the Consejo nacional de discapacidades, the Committee remains concerned at the lack of comprehensive data on the number of children with disabilities in the State party. It also notes with concern that these children face various forms of discrimination and that a high number of children with disabilities do not attend any form of educational institution, in particular in rural and remote areas.

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

c) in the light of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339), further encourage the integration of children with disabilities into the regular educational system and their inclusion in society, inter alia by giving more attention to special training for teachers and making the physical environment, including schools, sports and leisure facilities and all other public areas, accessible for children with disabilities.

“The Committee acknowledges the remarkable improvement made in the field of education, including the forthcoming implementation of bilingual education. ... However, the Committee is concerned at the low level of government investment in education, the poor equipment for schools, the limited access to educational facilities for street children and the regional disparities in the full enjoyment of the right to education.

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) increase enrolment in primary and secondary education, reducing socio-economic, ethnic and regional disparities in the access and full enjoyment of the right to education....

“The Committee recommends ... that the State party strengthen its efforts to secure full access of all refugee and asylum-seeking children to education, health and other services....

“The Committee takes note of the various measures undertaken by the State party with regard to indigenous children, including the implementation of the bilingual intercultural education system. However, the Committee remains concerned about the limited enjoyment of rights by indigenous children, particularly with regard to access to education and health due to widespread poverty....

“The Committee recommends that the State party take all necessary measures to protect the rights of indigenous children against discrimination and to guarantee their enjoyment of the rights enshrined in domestic law and in the Convention. In this regard, the Committee refers the State party to its recommendations adopted following its day of general discussion on the rights of indigenous children at its thirty-fourth session in 2003....”

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El Salvador

(29 January 2010, no ref, Advance Unedited Version, Concluding observations on third/fourth report, paras. 56, 57, 68, 69, 91 and 92)

“The Committee notes with appreciation the various initiatives taken by the National Council for Comprehensive Attention to Persons with Disabilities (Consejo Nacional de Atención Integral a las Personas con Discapacidad, CONAIPD) aimed at promoting and ensuring equal rights of children with disabilities, including the efforts to integrate children with disabilities into the regular education system....

“The Committee recommends that the State party continue the measures to protect and promote the rights of children with disabilities, by taking into account the General Comment No. 9 (2006) (CRC/C/GC/9), on the rights of children with disabilities, art. 23 of the Convention, the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities as well as the Inter-American Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against persons with disabilities; and: ...

c) establish concrete mechanisms to improve equal access of children with disabilities to education and health services; in this respect, inclusive education should be encouraged as much as possible; the offer of education for children with disabilities should have as priority concern the special needs of each child; ...

f) implement the provisions contained in the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol.

“The Committee ... is concerned at: ...

d) the substantial discrepancy in the access to education between urban and rural areas as well as between girls and boys; ...

f) the high number of young girls and boys who drop out of school due to teenage pregnancy, child labour or reasons related to economic migration.

“The Committee recommends that the State Party: ...

d) increase access and quality of secondary education as a fundamental safeguard to guarantee equal opportunities and prevent recruitment in youth gangs;

e) provide more accurate data on access to education, especially with gender, age and geographic indicators;

f) ratify the UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education of 1960.

“The Committee remains concerned at ... the lack of sufficient opportunities for the expression of indigenous culture and practices, including intercultural and bilingual education, as well as at the daily life discrimination to which indigenous people and their children are subjected.

“The Committee recommends that the State party take all necessary measures to protect the rights of indigenous children against discrimination and to guarantee their enjoyment of the rights enshrined in domestic law and in the Convention, including the right to intercultural and bilingual education, in accordance with article 30 of the Convention. To this end, the State party should take into account, inter alia, the General Comment No. 11 on Indigenous Children and their rights under the Convention (February 2009), as well as the recommendations contained in the outcome document of the Durban Review Conference (April 2009).”

(30 June 2004, CRC/C/15/Add.232, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 45, 46, 57 and 58)

“... despite the adoption of policies for the accessibility of education to children with special educational needs, the Committee notes with concern that a high number of children with disabilities do not attend any form of school education, especially in rural areas.

“The Committee recommends that the State party take all necessary measures: ...

c) to ensure and monitor implementation of the Equality of Opportunity Act and Policy and to take into consideration the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96);

d) to provide equal educational opportunities for children with disabilities, including by providing the necessary support and ensuring that teachers are trained to educate children with disabilities within regular schools.

“The Committee ... is concerned at persisting gaps in coverage and quality of education between urban and rural areas; high drop-out rates, particularly among rural children; persistent high illiteracy rates among children in rural areas, particularly among girls; and the lack of additional funds allocated for education to address the needs that were previously met by voluntary fees. The Committee is also concerned that pregnant adolescents face discrimination in access to education....

“The Committee encourages the State party: ...

b) to strengthen efforts to bridge the gaps in coverage and quality of education, including vocational training, throughout the country, giving special attention to promoting education of rural girls;

c) to take measures to identify the causes of the high drop-out rate in primary schools, particularly in rural areas, and take steps to address the situation; ...

e) to ensure that pregnant adolescents are not prevented from continuing their schooling; ...

h) to take steps to increase the quality of teaching methods and provide adequate training to teachers, including on how to handle “learning difficulties” of children;

i) to ratify the 1960 UNESCO Convention Against Discrimination in Education.”

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Equatorial Guinea

(3 November 2004, CRC/C/15/Add.245, Concluding observations on initial report, paras. 48 and 49)

“The Committee is concerned at the absence of statistical data and a comprehensive policy for disabled children, who continue to face discrimination in particular with regard to their integration in society, access to education, health and participation in social and cultural life.

“In light of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96, annex) and of the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339), the Committee recommends that the State party: ...

c) formulate a strategy that includes appropriate teacher training, to ensure that all children with disabilities have access to education and, wherever possible, that they are integrated into the mainstream education system; ...

e) allocate further resources for special education, including vocational training, and for the support given to families of children with disabilities....”

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Eritrea

(6 June 2008, CRC/C/ERI/CO/3 Unedited version, Concluding observations on second/third report, paras. 51, 52, 66 and 67)

“The Committee notes as positive the State party’s assistance for children with disabilities, in particular the measures undertaken to improve access to education. The Committee however notes that further measures are required in order to extend the coverage of assistance and rehabilitation to all children with disabilities, particularly in rural and remote areas.

“The Committee recommends that the State party, while taking into account the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the recommendations of the Committee’s Day of General Discussion on children with disabilities (1997), take all necessary measures [to]: ...

c) provide children with disabilities with access to adequate social and health services, as well as, to quality education;

d) ensure that professionals working with and for children with disabilities, such as medical, paramedical and related personnel, teachers and social workers are adequately trained.

“The Committee welcomes ... the provision of education in various languages.... The Committee is concerned that considerable challenges still hamper eliminating inequalities which disadvantage children’s access to education, in particular in rural regions among nomadic groups, and on the basis of ethnicity and sex....

“The Committee recommends that the State party, taking into account its General Comment No. 1 (2001) on the aims of education; ...

b) increase public expenditure for education, in particular primary education with specific attention to improving access and addressing sex, socio-economic, ethnic and regional disparities in the enjoyment of the right to education;

d) undertake additional efforts to ensure access to adaptable informal education of high quality to vulnerable groups, including street children, orphans, refugee and displaced children, children with disabilities and child domestic workers, inter alia by addressing indirect and hidden costs of school education;

e) further expand pre-school facilities supplied with qualified teachers, make them free of costs and make special attempts to include children from vulnerable and school distant groups at early ages; ...

i) seek technical assistance from UNESCO and UNICEF, in particular to improve access to education for girls.”

(2 July 2003, CRC/C/15/Add.204, Concluding observations on initial report, paras. 47, 48, 51 and 52)

“The Committee welcomes the information provided by the State party during the dialogue that it has drafted a National Child and Family Welfare Policy, which includes measures to integrate children with disabilities into the education system. Yet, it remains concerned that children with disabilities often suffer from societal discrimination and that a significant proportion do not attend school or participate in social and cultural life.

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) adopt and implement the draft National Child and Family Welfare Policy; ...

d) formulate a programme that includes appropriate teacher training in order to ensure that all children with disabilities have access to education, including vocational training, and that wherever possible they are integrated into the mainstream education system.

“The Committee is encouraged by the State party’s efforts to ... provide education in the native language of all nine ethnic groups. However, it is concerned that ... there is a significant disparity between the number of boys and girls in school....

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) continue to strengthen measures aimed at increasing enrolment rates in primary and basic education, in particular for girls; ...

e) prioritize and continue to strengthen and expand efforts at teacher training and expand recruitment of qualified teachers, in particular women and persons from all ethnic groups for education in mother-tongue programmes....”

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Estonia

(17 March 2003, CRC/C/15/Add.196, Concluding observations on initial report, paras. 23, 25, 38, 39, 43, 52 and 53)

“The Committee is concerned that the current discriminatory attitudes towards linguistic minority communities (e.g. the Russian-speaking community), non-citizens, especially those without legal status, and other disadvantaged groups may restrict directly or indirectly the rights guaranteed under the Convention to children belonging to those groups. In particular, the Committee is concerned: ...

b) that there is no legislation at present prohibiting discrimination in housing, and access to education and public services....

“The Committee requests that specific information be included, in the next periodic report, on the measures and programmes relevant to the Convention undertaken by the State party to follow up on the Durban Declaration and Programme of Action adopted at the World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, held in 2001, taking account of the Committee’s General Comment No. 1 on article 29, paragraph 1, of the Convention (aims of education).

“The Committee appreciates the many efforts made in this field, as well as the fact that the State party acknowledges that challenges remain with regard to guaranteeing children with disabilities the rights contained in the Convention and integrating them in mainstream education and support for families. It notes with concern that the implementation of the Education Act does not sufficiently envisage the inclusion of disabled children; that negative societal attitudes towards inclusion persist; and that support payments are only payable for disabled children up to 16 years of age.

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) review existing policies and practice in relation to children with disabilities, taking due account of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96, annex) and of the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on children with disabilities (CRC/C/69, para. 338);

b) provide early childhood care and special education for children with disabilities; ...

d) undertake awareness-raising campaigns which focus on prevention, inclusive education, family care and the promotion of the rights of children with disabilities; ...

f) provide adequate support, supervision and training to persons working with these children, including the teaching staff, in mainstream schools;

g) take measures to remove physical barriers to enable effective access of children with disabilities to schools and other institutions and services in a manner conducive to the child’s achieving the fullest possible social integration and individual development.

“The Committee encourages the State party: ...

d) to further enhance the system of education for national minorities; ...

f) to take all the appropriate measures to implement Regulation No. 209 for mother-tongue instruction for students whose mother tongue is not Estonian, providing also for the teaching of their culture and history....

“While welcoming the Programme on Integration in Estonian Society, 2000-2007, the Committee notes the tension arising around the question of the language of instruction of children belonging to minority groups in Estonia.

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) take all measures to implement effectively Regulation No. 209 for mother-tongue instruction for students whose mother tongue is not Estonian;

b) implement the Programme on Integration in Estonian Society in such a way that all the children of Estonia will be taught about the culture, history and identity of the various groups living in Estonia and that exchanges are organized between pupils of different schools in order to foster contacts, friendships and mutual respect among children from all groups of society;

c) guarantee the quality of instruction of the Estonian language to children belonging to minority groups so as to ensure that minority-language-speaking children can participate on a more equal level with Estonian-speaking children, in particular at higher education levels.”

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Ethiopia

(1 November 2006, CRC/C/ETH/CO/3, Concluding observations on third report, paras. 24, 25, 26, 51, 52, 63, 64, 65 and 66)

“... The Committee acknowledges the positive steps taken to enhance the status of the girl child such as criminalizing FGM and raising the minimum age of consent for marriage, however the Committee remains concerns that vulnerable groups of girls remain victims of harmful traditional practices, deprived of education (primary and secondary), victims of sexual and physical violence as well as commercial exploitation.

“The Committee recommends that the State party make combating discrimination against vulnerable girls a national priority, design programmes which enable the girl child to access her rights without discrimination and raise awareness of the value of the girl child among all stakeholders. Furthermore, in relation to other forms of discrimination, the Committee urges the State party to take adequate measures to ensure the practical application of the provisions guaranteeing the principle of non-discrimination and full compliance with article 2 of the Convention, and to adopt a comprehensive strategy to eliminate discrimination on any grounds and against all vulnerable groups.

“The Committee regrets that information was not included in the report on the measures and programmes relevant to the Convention on the Rights of the Child implemented by the State party to follow up on the Declaration and Programme of Action adopted at the 2001 World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, taking into account the Committee’s general comment No. 1 (2001) on the aims of education. The Committee requests that specific information, as outlined above, be provided in the next periodic report.

“The Committee ... is concerned about the persisting de factor discrimination, lack of statistical data on the number of disabled children and insufficient educational opportunities....

“The Committee recommends that, taking into account the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the recommendations of the Committee’s day of general discussion on children with disabilities held on 6 October 1997 (see CRC/C/66), the State party take all necessary measures to: ...

c) provide children with disabilities with access to adequate social and health services, as well as, to quality education;

d) ensure that professionals working with and for children with disabilities, such as medical, paramedical and related personnel, teachers and social workers are adequately trained.

“... Considerable challenges remain in order to overcome inequalities which impact on children’s access to education, in particular in rural regions, and on the basis of ethnicity and sex.

“The Committee recommends that the State party, taking into account the Committee’s general comment No. 1 (2001) on the aims of education:

a) ensure that primary education is free and compulsory and take the necessary measures to ensure that all children are enrolled in primary education;

b) increase public expenditure on education, in particular pre-primary, primary and secondary education with specific attention to improving access and addressing sex, socio-economic, ethnic and regional disparities in the enjoyment of the right to education; ...

d) undertake additional efforts to ensure access to informal education to vulnerable groups, including street children, orphans, children with disabilities, child domestic workers and children in conflict areas and camps, inter alia by addressing indirect and hidden costs of school education ....

“The Committee notes the presence of some 115,000 refugees from neighbouring countries and that the State [arty has applied asylum policies which to a large extent conform to international obligations. However, the Committee regrets that the State party did not withdraw its reservation to the 1951 Refugee Convention with regard to the right to education. Furthermore, the Committee is concerned at the low enrolment rates in school among refugee children and in particular the high dropout rates among girls, the lack of female staff at school ....

“The Committee urges the State party to:

a) withdraw its reservation to the 1951 Refugee Convention regarding the right to education;

b) take practical measures to increase enrolment rates, especially among girls, such as providing better access to education and ensuring a greater number of female teaching staff....”

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F

Finland

(20 October 2005, CRC/C/15/Add.272, Concluding observations on third report, paras. 42, 43, 56 and 57)

“While noting the State party’s efforts in this regard, the Committee expresses concern at the high drop-out rate from school among Roma children and at their difficulties in accessing education, which negatively impact their development and future access to employment. In addition, the Committee also notes with concern the lack of teachers and of pre-school teaching material in the Roma language.

“The Committee recommends that the State party take all necessary measures to ensure that article 28 and 29 of the Convention are fully implemented for all children throughout the country, including children belonging to the most vulnerable groups such as Roma children.

“The Committee expresses concern at the continuing disparities between Finnish and Roma children, which seriously affect the full enjoyment by Roma children of their rights, in particular to housing and education.

“The Committee recommends the State party continue to take measures towards social inclusion and to combat marginalization and stigmatization of Roma children. Furthermore, additional measures are needed to ensure the full enjoyment of the rights enshrined in the Convention by Roma children, in particular concerning access to education and an adequate standard of living.”

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France

(11 June 2009, CRC/C/FRA/CO/4 Advance unedited version, Concluding observations on third/fourth report, paras. 30, 31, 32, 33, 69, 70, 80, 81, 85, 86, 101 and 102)

"While welcoming the inclusion in school curricula of activities to counter racism, anti-Semitism and xenophobia, the Committee expresses concern at persistent discrimination, in particular in the field of economic and social rights, hampering social progress, justice and non discrimination, especially with respect to children residing in the Overseas Departments and Territories, asylum seeking and refugee children, as well as children belonging to minority groups such as Roma, travellers (“gens du voyage”) and religious minorities....

“The Committee urges the State party to ensure full protection against discrimination in the field of economic and social rights and on the grounds of race, origin, colour, name, ethnic or social origin, name or other grounds. It urges the State party to continue its efforts to eliminate regional disparities and to take measures to prevent and combat the persistent discrimination of foreign children and children belonging to minority groups, and create a climate of social progress, justice and equality. The Committee further urges the State party to take all necessary measures to ensure that cases of discrimination against children in all sectors of society are effectively addressed.

“The Committee is also concerned at the stigmatisation, including in the media and in school, of certain groups of children, in particular vulnerable children and children living in poverty, such as Roma and disabled children, children belonging to minorities and children living in suburbs (banlieues), which leads to a general climate of intolerance and negative public attitudes towards these children, especially adolescents, and may be often the underlying cause for further infringements of their rights. The Committee is further concerned at the general negative attitude of the police towards children, in particular adolescents.

“The Committee recommends that the State party take measures to address the intolerance and inappropriate characterization of children, especially adolescents, within the society, including in the media and in school, and to promote the positive and constructive attitude of the police towards children and adolescents.

“The Committee welcomes the adoption of the Law No. 2005-102 of 11 February 2005, which enshrines the equal right to education and enrolment in school for children with disabilities in accordance with article 23 of the Convention. However, it is concerned at the high number of children with disabilities who, in practice, attend school only a few hours per week. While welcoming the establishment of additional posts for specialized assistants (auxiliaires de vie), the Committee expresses concern at the instability in contractual arrangements and insufficient training opportunities. The Committee further notes some deficiencies with regard to specialized care, in particular for children suffering from multiple disabilities, access to leisure and cultural activities, as well as the lack of structures in Mayotte, Wallis and Futuna which hampers the implementation of aforementioned law.

“In light of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the Committee’s General Comment No. 9 (2006) on the rights of children with disabilities, the Committee recommends that the State party:

a) take all necessary measures to ensure that legislation providing access to education, as well as programmes and specialized assistance for children with disabilities, are effectively implemented and ensure the full enjoyment of their rights under the Convention on the entire territory of the State party, including in Overseas Departments and Territories; ...

c) provide training and stability for professional staff working with children with disabilities, such as medical, paramedical and related personnel, teachers and social workers....

“The Committee notes with appreciation the numerous efforts of the State party in the field of education, in order to guarantee the objectives set out in the Convention. The Committee nevertheless is concerned: ...

b) that significant inequalities persist with regard to school achievement of children living with parents in economic hardship. Several groups of children encounter problems being enrolled in school or continuing or re-entering education, either in regular schools or alternative educational facilities, and cannot fully enjoy their right to education, notably children with disabilities, children of Travellers, Roma children, asylum-seeking children, dropouts and non-attendees for different reasons (sickness, family obligations etc.), and teenage mothers....

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) continue and strengthen its efforts to reduce the effects of the children’s social background on their achievement in school; ...

d) invest considerable additional resources in order to ensure the right of all children to a truly inclusive education which ensures the full enjoyment to children from all disadvantaged, marginalized and school-distant groups;

e) use the disciplinary measure of permanent or temporary exclusion as a means of last resort only, reduce the number of exclusions and include social workers and educational psychologists in school in order to help children in conflict with school.

“The Committee also expresses concern at the lack of a systematic inclusion of unaccompanied minors into systems of social services, education and language schools....

“The Committee ... expresses concern over the lack of validation of cultural knowledge transmitted to children belonging to minority groups, in particular travellers and Roma children and the discrimination they face in particular with regard to economic, social and cultural rights, including right to ... education....

“The Committee recommends that the State party ensures that minority groups and indigenous peoples of Overseas Departments and Territories enjoy equal enjoyment of their rights and that children receive the possibility to validate their cultural knowledge without discrimination. It further urges the State party to take measures to eliminate all discrimination of children belonging to minority groups, in particular with regard to their economic and social rights.”

(30 June 2004, CRC/C/15/Add.240, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 40, 41, 48 and 49)

“The Committee welcomes the programmes for the integration of children with disabilities in mainstream schools, such as Plan Handiscol’, and progress made in this respect. Nevertheless, the Committee is concerned that these remain insufficient and that too many children are not included in these efforts and remain without appropriate care with the main burden upon the families alone. Furthermore, the Committee is concerned that efforts aimed at detecting disabilities may not be adequate.

“The Committee encourages the State party to actively pursue its current efforts and to continue:

a) to review existing policies and practice in relation to children with disabilities, with due regard of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and of the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on children with disabilities (see CRC/C/69);

b) to make efforts, within the educational system, to detect disabilities in children and ensure better evaluation of the overall needs of students;

c) to pursue efforts to ensure that children with disabilities may exercise their right to education to the maximum extent possible and facilitate their integration in the mainstream education system....

“The Committee ... is concerned that thousands of children with disabilities are deprived of their right to education.

“The Committee urges the State party, taking into account its General Comment No. 1 on the aims of education, to pursue its efforts to ensure that all children enjoy the right to education consistent with articles 28 and 29 of the Convention, and that children with disabilities are integrated into mainstream education as far as possible, in keeping with article 3 of the Convention....”

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G

Georgia

(6 June 2008, CRC/C/GEO/CO/3 Unedited version, Concluding observations on third report, paras. 42, 43, 56, 57, 60, 61, 76 and 77)

“The Committee, while welcoming the various measures aimed at promoting inclusive education for children with disabilities with a view to using the model in all schools, regrets the lack of a comprehensive government policy for children with disabilities which takes into account their overall developmental needs, including their right not to be discriminated against, the right to education and the right to health.

“The Committee recommends that the State party, taking into account the General Comment No. 9 (2006) on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/GC/9):

a) consider ratifying the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol;

b) ensure implementation of the Standard Rules for Equalizing the Possibilities for Persons with Disabilities, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 23 December 1993;

c) pursue efforts to ensure that children with disabilities may exercise their right to education to the maximum extent possible....

“The Committee ... remains concerned about ... the growing disparity in educational standards between rural and urban areas. The Committee is concerned ... that drop-out rates are progressively higher in later stages of schooling, particularly in rural areas.

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

b) focus on an overall improvement of the quality of education provided, particularly in rural and minority regions, by, inter alia, ensuring that teachers are fully qualified and trained;

c) take further measures to facilitate the accessibility to education of children from all groups in society ....

“While welcoming the newly adopted draft action plan for the implementation of the national strategy on internally displaced persons adopted on 2 February 2007 with an increased focus on integration, the Committee remains concerned that internally displaced children in the State party continue to face serious socio-economic deprivation, especially their limited access to housing, health services and education, as well as the physical and psychological impact of displacement on children. The Committee is further concerned about the potential negative impact of segregated schools for internally displaced children.

“The Committee recommends that the State party give the highest priority to the protection of the rights of internally displaced children. In this regard, the Committee recommends that the State party: ...

c) take measures to close segregated schools for internally displaced children, and integrate them in mainstream schools without delay....

“The Committee ... is concerned that insufficient efforts have been made by the State party to facilitate learning by children belonging to minority groups in Georgia, both in Georgian and in their own language.

“The Committee urges the State party to: ...

b) guarantee, in the context of the State Language Programme, the quality of instruction of the Georgian language to children belonging to minority groups so as to ensure that minority-language-speaking children can participate on a more equal level with Georgian-speaking children, in particular at higher education levels;

c) take the necessary measures to ensure that access to higher education by pupils belonging to minority groups is not hindered by their inability to pass the Georgian language exams alone;

d) implement the National Civic Integration Strategy and Action Plan in such a way that all the children of Georgia will be taught about the culture, history and identity of the various groups living in Georgia and that exchanges are organized between pupils of different schools in order to foster contacts, friendships and mutual respect among children from all groups of society....”

(27 October 2003, CRC/C/15/Add.222, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 46, 47, 56, 57 and 71)

“... The Committee remains concerned that children with disabilities remain outside mainstream education and are marginalized in society.

“The Committee encourages the State party to pursue actively its current efforts and continue:

a) to review existing policies and practice in relation to children with disabilities, taking due regard of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and of the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on the issue of “The rights of children with disabilities” (see CRC/C/69); ...

d) to take the necessary measures to integrate children with disabilities in the mainstream education system and society....

“The Committee ... is concerned that education is provided to mentally and physically disabled persons only in residential institutions, and that their number has significantly increased from 1997 to 2000, despite the general decline in the population.

“The Committee urges the State party, taking into account its general comment No. 1 on the aims of education, pursue its efforts to ensure that all children enjoy the right to education consistent with articles 28 and 29 of the Convention, and that children with disabilities are integrated into the mainstream education in keeping with article 3 of the Convention....

“The Committee encourages the State party to take measures to combat racism, xenophobia, discrimination and intolerance by, inter alia, ensuring follow-up to the recommendations of the United Nations treaty bodies and ECRI, in particular as they relate to children. The Committee recognizes the important role of education in this respect and encourages the State party to continue to support education in languages of the minorities as well as education in their mother tongue for the ethnic Georgian population not having access to it.”

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Germany

(26 February 2004, CRC/C/15/Add.226, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 52 and 53)

“The Committee ... is concerned at the lack of adequate services for the education of children with learning difficulties.

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

c) further develop services for children with learning difficulties....”

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Grenada

11 June 2010, CRC/C/GRD/CO/2 Concluding observations: Grenada Paras. 27, 41, 42, 53 and 54.

“The Committee requests that specific information be included in the next periodic report on the measures and programmes relevant to the Convention on the Rights of the Child undertaken by the State party to follow up on the Declaration and Programme of Action adopted at the 2001 World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance as well as the outcome document adopted at the 2009 Durban Review Conference, taking into account general comment No.1 (2001) on the aims of education.”

The Committee notes with interest the work of the Task Force on Special Education established in 2002 by the Ministry of Education and the development of the Strategic Plan for Educational Enhancement and Development (2006-2015). It also notes other initiatives and programmes to assist children with disabilities, including the existence of two schools for special education in Grenada, of Itinerant Teacher programmes targeting visually impaired and hearing impaired children and of the dedication of a Month of Awareness for persons with disabilities. Nevertheless, the Committee is concerned that access to education for children with disabilities is limited and that the Itinerant Teacher programme covers only a limited proportion of the children with disabilities who could benefit from its services. Furthermore, recalling its previous recommendations (CRC/C/15/Add.121, para.) the Committee regrets that no early identification programmes to prevent disabilities have been developed.”

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

      (a) Take all necessary measures to ensure the implementation of legislation providing services for children with disabilities;
      (b) Continue and further strengthen its programmes and services for children with disabilities, including through the development of early identification programmes, the broadening of its Itinerant Teacher Programme to cover all children with disabilities in need of its services. In this regard, the State party should ensure that such services receive adequate human and financial resources;
      (c) Continue, strengthen and broaden training for professional staff working with children with disabilities, such as teachers, medical, paramedical and related personnel and social workers; and
      (d) Proceed with the ratification of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol.
      (e) Take into account the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the Committee’s general comment No. 9 (2006) on the rights of children with disabilities.”

“The Committee notes with appreciation the high enrolment rates for primary schools, the introduction of School Attendant Officers responsible for encouraging school attendance on a regular basis and the adoption of the Education Act of 2002, which makes provisions for early childhood education, home education and special education and provides for a curriculum that, inter alia, prepares students for “the opportunities, responsibilities and experiences of adult life”. The Committee notes that full access for all students to secondary education has been implemented in some Parishes and that a school feeding programme is available in all Government primary schools. However, the Committee regrets that:

      (a) Twenty-one per cent of enrolled students drop out of school before reaching grade five;
      (b) Despite increased enrolment rates, one child in six is not enrolled in secondary school;
      (c) While there is a high pre-school enrolment rate in the country, the action plan linked to the State party’s Early Childhood Development Policy is not being systematically implemented;
      (d) That early childhood facilities are inadequately staffed and furnished;
      (e) There is a trend for children who are accused of crimes to be asked to leave school until the matter is resolved.”

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

      (a) Take steps to ensure equal access to education without discrimination, including for pregnant girls and children accused of crimes;
      (b) Take all necessary measures to ensure that children complete their schooling, taking concrete action to address the reasons behind non-completion of schooling;
      (c) Continue and strengthen efforts to address the high incidence of truancy and drop out rates of boys, particularly from secondary school;
      (d) Improve the quality of education by ensuring at the same time that teachers are well-trained and fully qualified;
      (e) Ensure that the Early Childhood Development Policy is fully implemented and that pre-school education facilities are provided with the necessary resources so that they are adequately staffed and furnished;
      (f) Strengthen the promotion of vocational education and training for children who drop out of primary or secondary school;
      (g) Take steps to ensure sufficient and adequate resources to implement a full school curriculum that addresses life skills, human rights and child rights;
      (h) Take into account its general comment No. 1 (2001).”

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Guatemala

(1 October 2010, CRC.C.GTM.CO.3-4 Concluding Observations: Guatemala Paras. 41, 42, 68, 69, 79, 80, 81, 101 and 102.)

“The Committee recommends that the State party urgently address the situation of discrimination against Maya, Garifuna and Xinca children in its policies and plans for the elimination of racial discrimination, as well as in social development plans, ensuring the sustainability and cultural suitability of these programmes. In light of article 2 of the Convention, the Committee recommends that the State party ensure full implementation in practice of all legal provisions prohibiting discrimination, combat discrimination by, inter alia, ensuring equal access to education, health-care, facilities and poverty reduction programmes, and take measures to address the inappropriate characterization and stigmatization of children and adolescents.”

“The Committee requests that specific information be included in the next periodic report on the measures and programmes relevant to the Convention undertaken by the State party to follow up on the Durban Declaration and Programme of Action adopted at the 2001 World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance and the 2009 Durban Review Conference, taking into account the Committee’s general comment No. 1 (2001) on the aims of education (article 29 (1) of the Convention).”

“The Committee is concerned at the limited access to education, health, community and cultural life and services for children with disabilities, as well as at the lack of sufficient measures undertaken by the State party in this regard.”

“The Committee recommends that the State party ensure the rights of all children with disabilities in order to prevent them from becoming victims of abuse, exclusion and discrimination and to give them the necessary support so that are able to exercise their rights as active members of their communities. The State party should take into account the Committee’s General Comment No. 9 (2006) on the Rights of Children with Disabilities.”

“The Committee welcomes the Governmental agreement No. 22-2004, which establishes the comprehensive application of bilingual education and the compulsory use of national languages in instruction. Under this agreement, the teaching and practice of multiculturalism and interculturalism in the classroom in Mayan languages, Garifuna or Xinca and/or Spanish is compulsory.”

“The Committee also notes with satisfaction that Article 37 of the PINA Law provides for free and compulsory education up to the last grade of secondary education, as well as the free school program launched in 2009. It is however concerned that the increased demand for education has not been met with adequate educational infrastructure, human and technical resources. The Committee is also concerned at the very low rate of school retention.”

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

      (a) Ensure gratuity of education in practice as well as a sufficient number of schools, school materials and adequately trained teachers;
      (b) Take all the necessary measures to ensure that children complete primary and secondary school by taking concrete action to address the reasons behind non-completion of schooling; and
      (c) Take into account the Committee’s general comment No. 1 (2001) on the aims of education.”

“The Committee is concerned at the exclusion of Maya, Garifuna and Xinca children in relation to access to basic services necessary for their comprehensive development, such as registration in the civil registry, health services and education adapted to their culture, history and languages, the difficult access to land and the lack of respect of their traditional territories …”

“The Committee recommends that:

      (a) The State party ensure that indigenous children are registered in the civil registry, and that they receive health services and education adapted to their culture, history and languages
      (c) The State party should provide relocation sites equipped with basic utilities, such as drinking water, electricity, and washing and hygiene facilities, and with appropriate services, including schools, health-care centres and means of transportation. In this regard, the Committee reiterates the recommendation expressed by the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination …”

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Ghana

(17 March 2006, CRC/C/GHA/CO/2, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 47, 48, 59 and 60)

“While welcoming the establishment of the Community Based Rehabilitation Programme, the Committee remains concerned about the lack of statistics regarding children with disabilities, the limited capacities for early detection and treatment of children with disabilities, the inaccessibility of buildings and transportation and the absence of a policy aimed at inclusion and integration.

“In the light of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339), the Committee further encourages the inclusion of children with disabilities into the regular educational system and their integration into society, inter alia, by giving more attention to special training for teachers, educating parents and making the physical environment, including schools, sports and leisure facilities and all other public areas, accessible for children with disabilities....

“... the Committee is concerned about the persisting gender and geographical disparities with regard to access to and quality of education.

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) improve access to vocational training and informal education for vulnerable groups, including street children, orphans, children with disabilities and child workers;

c) increase enrolment in primary and secondary education and reduce social-economic, regional and gender disparities in the access and full enjoyment of the right to education....”

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Guyana

(26 February 2004, CRC/C/15/Add.224, Concluding observations on initial report, paras. 39, 40, 47, 48 and 57)

“... the Committee remains concerned at the societal discrimination experienced by children with disabilities, the inaccessibility of buildings and transportation for them, the absence of an inclusive policy and the situation of children with disabilities in remote areas who are doubly disadvantaged.

“In the light of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on the rights of the children with disabilities (CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339), the Committee recommends that the State party ensure that the National Policy on the Rights of People with Disabilities addresses children’s rights, taking into account the provision for non-discrimination, accessibility to all services, including public buildings and transportation, and integration into mainstream education and that it specifically addresses the situation of children in remote areas.

“... the Committee remains concerned at the high dropout rates, especially among boys, which are influenced by the economic situation of the families. The Committee is also concerned at the decrease in the quality of education, teacher availability and training and at the widening of educational disparities in the hinterland regions.

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) continue to strengthen measures aimed at increasing enrolment rates in primary and secondary education and to further increase attempts to bring dropouts back to school and other training programmes;

b) ensure that pregnant teenagers are given an opportunity to complete their education....

“The Committee is concerned at the living conditions of Amerindian children with regard to the full enjoyment of all rights enshrined in the Convention, especially the degradation of their natural environment and the fact that they are not taught in their own languages.”

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H

Haiti

(18 March 2003, CRC/C/15/Add.202, Concluding observations on initial report, paras. 50, 51, 52 and 53)

“The Committee notes that a colloquium, held in 1999, adopted recommendations regarding children with disabilities to be implemented by the State party, but remains concerned at the absence of a comprehensive strategy for children with disabilities, at the lack of data and at the insufficient measures taken by the State party to ensure effective access of these children to adequate health services, education and social services, and to facilitate their full inclusion in society....

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) collect data on disabled children in order to review their situation in terms of their access to suitable health care, education services and employment opportunities;

c) take note of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96, annex) and of the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339)....

“... The Committee further welcomes the increasing budget allocated to education, as well as the establishment of the National Committee for the Education of Girls. However, the Committee is concerned at the still low enrolment ratios, and the disparities in enrolment between girls and boys and between rural and urban areas.... The Committee is also concerned that pregnant girls are excluded from schools....

“In the light of articles 28 and 29 and other relevant provisions of the Convention, the Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) continue its efforts to ensure that all children, especially girls, have equal access to educational opportunities, paying special attention to those living in rural and remote areas;

c) take the necessary measures to guarantee access to adapted and adequate curricula designed for vulnerable children like street children, restaveks and over-age children or adolescents....”

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Honduras

(3 May 2007, CRC/C/HND/CO/3, Concluding observations on third report, paras. 31, 32, 56, 57 and 67)

“... The Committee is also concerned at the persistence of traditional patriarchal cultural attitudes that discriminate against girls, thus making them more vulnerable to human rights violations.

“The Committee urges the State party to: ...

b) combat discrimination by ensuring equal access to education, health-care facilities and poverty alleviation programmes and pay special attention to the situation of girls; ...

“The Committee notes the enactment in October 2005 of the Law for Integral and Equal Development for the Disabled, and welcomes the work of CONAMED (National Council for the Care of Disabled Children). But it expresses concern that this body enjoys limited support. The Committee is also concerned at the general situation of children with disabilities, and especially concerned that very limited infrastructure exists for their car, and that a very high percentage of children with disabilities do not attend primary school and do not complete any level of education.

“The Committee recommends that the State party, taking into account the Committee’s general comment No. 9 on the Rights of Children with Disabilities and the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96):

a) pursue efforts to ensure that children with disabilities may exercise their right to education to the maximum extent possible, and facilitate their inclusion in the mainstream education system; ...

g) sign and ratify the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol once open for ratification.

“The Committee recommends that the State party, taking into account the Committee’s general comment No. 1 on the aims of education (2001): ...

d) increase educational opportunities for indigenous children, inter alia by continuing to provide bilingual education, where necessary....”

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Hungary

(17 March 2006, CRC/C/HUN/CO/2, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 19, 20, 21, 39, 40, 48, 49, 50, 51, 56, 62 and 63)

“Despite legislative advances by way of the Act on Equal Treatment and the Promotion of Equal Opportunities adopted in 2003 and several measures and programmes aiming at the elimination of discrimination, the Committee is concerned that discriminatory and xenophobic attitudes, in particular towards the Roma population, remain prevalent and that especially Roma children suffer from stigmatization, exclusion and socio-economic disparities, notably related to housing, unemployment, access to health services, adoption and educational facilities because of their ethnic status.

“The Committee strongly recommends that the State Party: ...

d) systematically abolish all institutional settings which segregate children based on discriminatory grounds; and

e) expeditiously terminate the practice of withdrawing public responsibility for the education of certain children by assigning them “private” student status.

“The Committee also requests that specific information be included, in the next periodic report, on the measures and programmes relevant to the Convention on the Rights of the Child undertaken by the State party to follow up on the Declaration and Programme of Action adopted at the 2001 World Conference Against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, also taking into account general comment No. 1 on article 29 (1) of the Convention (aims of education).

“The Committee is concerned about the lack of an inclusion policy and integration mechanisms and inadequate assistance for children with disabilities.

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) ensure implementation of the Standard Rules for Equalizing the Possibilities for Persons with Disabilities, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 23 December 1993;

b) pursue efforts to ensure that children with disabilities exercise their right to education to the maximum extent possible and facilitate inclusion in the mainstream education system....

“... The Committee notes with regret that the non-attendance of a number of children is not adequately controlled or prevented and that many Roma children leave the school system before graduation, although the Government has established programmes and scholarships in order to further the learning performance of Roma children.

“The Committee, while recognizing certain efforts to reduce segregated education, is concerned that many Roma children are still arbitrarily placed in special institutions or classes. Furthermore, the Committee is concerned that the quality of schools suffers from regional disparities and that access to pre-schools is reportedly limited in regions where poverty is high and Roma population is dominant.

“The Committee recommends that the State party take all necessary measures to ensure that articles 28 and 29 of the Convention are fully implemented, while taking into account general comment No. 1 (2001), when legislation and policies in the area of education are designed. Particular attention should be paid to abolishing segregation in schools that continues to disadvantage Roma children.

“The Committee further suggests that recommendations regarding suitable measures in the field of segregated education as proposed by the Parliamentary Commissioners on Civil Rights and the Parliamentary Commissioner for National and Ethnic Minorities Rights be given due consideration.

“The Committee notes with appreciation that the State party has improved the conditions for refugee and asylum-seeking children by guaranteeing their legal right to education....

“The Committee expresses concern at the continuing problems faced by Roma children that seriously affect the full enjoyment of their rights. In particular, the Committee is concerned about their high drop-out rate from school, which has a negative impact on their education and on their future access to employment.

“The Committee recommends that the State party continue to take measures towards social integration of these children and to combat marginalization and stigmatization of Roma children. Furthermore, additional measures are needed to ensure the full enjoyment of the rights enshrined in the Convention by Roma children, in particular as to their access to education and adequate standard of living.”

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I

Iceland

(31 January 2003, CRC/C/15/Add.203, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 23, 32, 36 and 37)

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

c) study the situation of immigrant children in the municipalities, especially in the school system, and the effectiveness of measures taken to facilitate their integration;

d) include in its next report measures and programmes relevant to the Convention undertaken by the State party to follow up on the Durban Declaration and Programme of Action, adopted at the World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, taking account of General Comment No. 1 on article 29, paragraph 1, of the Convention (aims of education).

“The Committee welcomes the State party's policy of inclusion of children with disabilities and notes the recently adopted policy relating to chronically ill children, including provisions for health, social security, education and finance....

“The Committee ... is concerned: ...

b) About the high drop-out rates of immigrant children, particularly at the secondary level.

“The Committee recommends that the State party, taking into account the Committee's General Comment No. 1 on the aims of education:

a) explicitly include human rights education, including children's rights, in the curricula of all primary and secondary schools, particularly with regard to development and respect for human rights, tolerance and equality of the sexes and religious and ethnic minorities;

b) strengthen measures to address the problem of immigrant children drop-outs.”

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India

(26 February 2004, CRC/C/15/Add.228, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 29, 56,57, 64, 65, 71 and 81)

“The Committee welcomes the National Plan of Action for the Girl Child and the Platform for Action, but is deeply concerned at the persistence of discriminatory social attitudes and harmful traditional practices towards girls, including low school enrolment and high dropout rates....

“... Concern is also expressed at the limited facilities and services for children with disabilities and at the limited number of teachers trained to work with children with disabilities, as well as the insufficient efforts made to facilitate their inclusion into the educational system and generally within society. The Committee also notes with concern that inadequate resources have been allocated to special education programmes for children with disabilities.

“In line with its previous recommendations (ibid., para. 47) and in light of the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the recommendations adopted by the Committee at its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (see CRC/C/69), it is recommended that the State party: ...

d) establish special education programmes for disabled children and include them in the regular school system to the extent possible; ...

g) seek technical cooperation for the training of professional staff, including teachers, working with and for children with disabilities from, among others, WHO.

“The Committee welcomes the adoption of the Constitution (86th Amendment) Act, 2002 providing for free and compulsory education for all children aged 6-14, the continued efforts of the State party to increase girls’ enrolment in school and the Midday Meal Scheme. While noting an increased enrolment rate, the Committee is seriously concerned that 60 million children do not attend primary school. The Committee is further concerned at the high, although decreasing, level of illiteracy and the striking disparities in terms of access to education, attendance at primary and secondary school and dropout rates between boys and girls. The Committee is also concerned that striking disparities regarding these rates also exist between different states, between rural and urban areas, and between the affluent and the poor and disadvantaged groups....

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) strengthen its efforts to progressively ensure that that all girls and boys, in urban, rural and least developed areas and children belonging to Scheduled Castes and Tribes, have equal access to educational opportunities....

“In light of article 22 of the Convention, the Committee recommends that the State party consider acceding to the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Protocol, and adopt comprehensive legislation to ensure adequate protection of refugee and asylum-seeking children, including in the fields of physical safety, health, education and social welfare, and to facilitate family reunification.

“The Committee is concerned at the situation of children belonging to minorities, including to the Primitive Tribal Groups, and at their limited access to social services, including health care, immunization and education, and the violation of their rights to survival and development, to enjoy their own culture and to be protected from discrimination.”

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Indonesia

(26 February 2004, CRC/C/15/Add.223, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 53, 54, 61, 63, 66 and 90)

“While acknowledging the development of special services and rehabilitation centres for children with disabilities, the Committee is concerned that only very few children with disabilities have access to these services.

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) review the situation of these children in terms of their access to suitable health care, education services and employment opportunities and allocate adequate resources to strengthen services for children with disabilities, support their families and train professionals in the field;

c) take note of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96, annex) and of the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339)....

“... the Committee is very concerned: ...

c) that married children and pregnant teenagers do not generally continue their education....

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) progressively ensure that girls and boys, from urban, rural and least developed areas, have equal access to educational opportunities, without any financial obstacles; ...

e) provide education opportunities for married children and pregnant teenagers....

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) take immediate steps to ensure that all displaced and refugee children and their families have access to basic health and education services, and that all their rights contained in the Convention are protected, including the right to be registered at birth....

“The Committee welcomes the adoption of the Human Rights Act of 1999, which recognizes the right to freedom of religion and worship of everyone. However, the Committee is still concerned that the rights of children belonging to a minority or ethnic group are not recognized by the Act and that these children also do not have adequate access to education, health and social services.”

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Ireland

(29 September 2006, CRC/C/IRL/CO/2, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 41, 42, 43, 58, 59, 60, 61, 78 and 79)

“While welcoming legislative and policy developments such as the Disability Act of 2005 and the National Disability Strategy of 2004, the Committee remains concerned that the legal framework inadequately addresses the specific needs of children with disabilities and their access to necessary health services and educational facilities and that many of the provisions of the Children Act have not been fully enacted.

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) adopt an inclusive and rights-based legal framework that addresses the specific needs of children with disabilities and implement all relevant provisions of the existing legislation related to children with disabilities;

b) undertake, with the involvement of children, awareness-raising campaigns which focus on prevention and inclusion, available support and services for children with disabilities, and on combating negative societal attitudes towards children with disabilities.

“The Committee also urges the State party to review existing policies and practices in relation to children with disabilities, giving due attention to the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the recommendations adopted by the Committee on its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities held on 6 October 1997 (see CRC/C/69).

“The Committee welcomes the State party’s efforts to develop and strengthen the legal and policy framework for the right to education. The Committee is, however, concerned ... that particular high dropout rates exist among children belonging to the Traveller community and children with disabilities.

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) continue taking measures to create an educational environment where the special needs of the child are taken into consideration, inter alia, by undertaking appropriate professional assessment of the specific needs of children, providing technical and material support for children with special needs, ensuring children in schools have the right to be heard in all matters concerning their well-being, and by continuing efforts to reduce overall class sizes to provide education to all children on an equal footing; ...

d) publish and disseminate the prepared Traveller Education Strategy and undertake training activities for teachers in order to sensitize them to Traveller issues and inter-cultural approaches.

“The Committee reiterates the concern raised by the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination in its concluding observations on the initial and second periodic reports of the State party (CERD/C/IRL/CO/2) that non-denominational or multidenominational schools represent less than 1% of the total number of primary education facilities.

“The Committee encourages the State party to take fully into consideration the recommendations made by the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD/C/IRL/CO/2, para. 18) which encourages the promotion of the establishment of non-denominational or multidenominational schools and to amend the existing legislative framework to eliminate discrimination in school admissions.

“... the Committee remains concerned that adequate recognition, action and positive measures have not yet been taken to enhance the enjoyment of the rights of children belonging to the Traveller community and, in particular, to facilitate their access to education, housing and health services.

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) undertake or use existing research or comprehensive needs assessment with a particular focus on children belonging to the Traveller community in the fields of health, housing and education to further serve as a basis for policies and strategies and concrete measures for the improvement of the well-being of children; ...

d) provide in its next report detailed information on measures taken in order to enhance the enjoyment of the rights of children belonging to the Traveller community, in particular with regard to enjoyment and access to education, health services and housing facilities.”

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Islamic Republic of Iran

(31 March 2005, CRC/C/15/Add.254, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 53, 54, 59, 60, 61 and 63)

“While welcoming the programmes undertaken by the State party on the causes and prevention of disabilities, the Committee is concerned at the low number of disabled children attending school and the lack of information provided by the State party on attempts to integrate disabled children into the mainstream school system since the consideration of the initial report....

“In the light of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96 of 20 December 1993, annex) and of the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (see CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339), the Committee recommends that the State party adopt measures to integrate children with disabilities into mainstream education, including adopting the necessary measures to adapt schools to receiving children with different kinds of disability....

“Although the Committee notes the high level of literacy in Iran and the measures taken by the State party to increase school enrolment and lower dropout rates, it remains concerned that not all children are enrolled in or graduate from primary school. Working children, children living on the streets and children without complete personal documents, particularly refugee children with binational parents, have reduced access to schools. It is also concerned that refugee children are currently only being enrolled in schools if their parents have registered with the authorities, and that the enrolment of refugee children is not currently being offered free of charge. It is further concerned about well-documented information that a large number of Baha’i students were not admitted to university on the grounds of their religious affiliation.

“The Committee is also concerned about the disparity that continues to exist between boys and girls; the high dropout rates of girls in rural schools upon reaching puberty; the lack of female teachers in rural areas; long distances between homes and schools, which keep girls at home, particularly after primary school and the lack of mobile schools for nomadic children, as well as the remarkable differences in the personal and material equipment between schools in urban and rural areas and between the most and least developed provinces, resulting in unequal educational opportunities. In addition, it regrets that the decision to expand compulsory education beyond the five years of primary school has been delayed for many years.

“While welcoming the State party’s initiatives with respect to youth, the Committee encourages the State party to continue its efforts to reach its goal of universal basic education and recommends that the State party: ...

b) ensure that all children, including refugee children, have equal educational opportunities on all levels of the educational system without discrimination based on gender, religion, ethnic origin, nationality or statelessness;

c) eliminate all disparities in resources provided to schools in urban and rural areas in order to guarantee equal educational opportunities throughout the country....

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

d) ensure that all refugee children are registered and have full access to free education, health and other services....”

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Israel

(9 October 2002, CRC/C/15/Add.195, Concluding observations on initial report, paras. 26, 52, 53 and 57)

“The Committee is concerned that discrimination, contrary to article 2 of the Convention, persists in the State party, and that non-discrimination is not expressly guaranteed under the Constitution. In particular, the Committee is concerned about discrimination against girls and women, especially in the context of religious laws, discrimination on religious grounds, inequalities in the enjoyment of the economic, social and cultural rights (i.e. access to education, health care and social services) of Israeli Arabs, Bedouins, Ethiopians and other minorities, children with disabilities and children of foreign workers, and of the rights and freedoms of Palestinian children in the occupied territories.

“The Committee is concerned about the serious deterioration of access to education of children in the occupied Palestinian territories as a result of the measures imposed by the Israeli Defence Forces, including road closures, curfews and mobility restrictions, and the destruction of school infrastructure.

“The Committee recommends that the State party guarantee that every Palestinian child has access to education, in accordance with the Convention. As a first step, the State party should ensure that restrictions on mobility are lifted throughout the occupied Palestinian territories during school hours.

“The Committee is concerned that the aims of education outlined in article 29 of the Convention, including the development of respect for human rights, tolerance and equality of the sexes and religious and ethnic minorities, are not explicitly part of the curricula throughout the State party.”

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Italy

(18 March 2003, CRC/C/15/Add.198, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 3, 20, 22, 43, 44, 54 and 55)

“The Committee welcomes: ...

g) the widespread inclusion of children with disabilities into the mainstream schools;

“The Committee ... is concerned at racist incidents against minorities the use of hate speech in public presentations, and the disparities in the enjoyment of economic and social rights, particularly in the fields of health, social welfare, education and housing, experienced by poor children, Roma children, non-Italian children, including unaccompanied minors, and disabled children.

“The Committee requests that specific information be included in the next periodic report on measures and programmes relevant to the Convention undertaken by the State party as a follow-up to the Durban Declaration and Programme of Action adopted by the World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, held in 2001, taking into account the Committee’s General Comment No. 1 on article 29, paragraph 1, of the Convention (aims of education).

“The Committee ... remains concerned at the high rate of drop-out in upper secondary education; the variations in educational outcomes for children according to their cultural and socio-economic background, and to other factors such as gender (more girls than boys do obtain a secondary education diploma), disability and ethnic origin....

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) take all necessary measures to eliminate the inequalities in educational achievement between girls and boys and among children from different social, economic or cultural groups and to guarantee to all children quality education....

“While noting the efforts undertaken by the State party to improve the situation of Roma children, the Committee remains concerned at their difficult social situation and their insufficient access to education and health services....

“The Committee recommends that the State party develop, in cooperation with Roma NGOs, comprehensive proactive policies and programmes to prevent social exclusion and discrimination and to allow Roma children to enjoy fully their rights, including access to education and health care.”

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J

Jamaica

(4 July 2003, CRC/C/14/Add.210, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 23, 25, 38, 39, 48 and 49)

“The Committee is concerned that: ...

c) children with disabilities are de facto discriminated against by the absence of specific guarantees for their integration into regular schools and are hindered, inter alia, by limited access to facilities....

“The Committee further requests that specific information be included in the next periodic report on the measures and programmes relevant to the Convention on the Rights of the Child undertaken by the State party to follow up on the Declaration and Programme of Action adopted at the 2001 World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, and taking account of general comment No. 1 on article 29 (1) of the Convention (aims of education).

“While noting the progress made in the area of the rights of children with disabilities, including the work done in cooperation with NGOs and United Nations agencies and, inter alia, the adoption of the Copenhagen Declaration and Plan of Action of 1995, the Committee remains concerned that: ...

d) insufficient efforts have been made to facilitate the inclusion of children with disabilities into the educational system and society in general, including efforts to change traditional attitudes towards persons with disabilities and to improve the access to information, medical facilities, etc.

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) in the light of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339), further encourage the integration of children with disabilities into the regular educational system and their inclusion into society, inter alia by giving more attention to special training for teachers and making the physical environment, including schools, sports and leisure facilities and all other public areas, accessible for children with disabilities....

“The Committee welcomes the State party’s progress in the field of education, but remains concerned about: ...

c) the equality of access to education, in particular concerning boys and children from poor families....

“The Committee recommends that the State party, in the light of the Committee’s general comment No. 1 on article 29 (1) of the Convention (aims of education): ...

c) seek to further implement participatory measures to encourage children, especially boys, to stay in school during the period of compulsory education; take further measures to facilitate the accessibility to education of children from all groups in society, particularly children from poor backgrounds, including reviewing the system of school fees; and make every effort to raise awareness in society of the importance of education for all children....”

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Japan

(11 June 2010, CRC/C/JPN/CO/3 Concluding observations: Japan Paras 5, 33, 34, 58, 59, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74 and 75)

“The Committee notes with appreciation the adoption of the following legislative measures: …

      (e) The amendment, in 2010, of the Fundamental Law on Education.”

“… The Committee reiterates the concern of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW/C/JPN/CO/6) that article 5 of the Fundamental Law on Education, which referred to the promotion of gender equality, has been removed.

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

      (a) Enact a comprehensive anti-discrimination law and repeal all legislation which discriminates against children on any basis;
      (b) Take the necessary measures, including awareness-raising campaigns and human-rights education, to reduce and prevent discrimination in practice, particularly against girls, children belonging to ethnic minorities, children of non-Japanese origin and children with disabilities.”

“The Committee notes that the State party has adopted laws, established services and institutions with the aim of supporting children with disabilities, promoting their social participation, including joint learning in schools, and developing their independence. The Committee remains concerned that deep-rooted discrimination still exists and that measures for children with disabilities are not carefully monitored. It also notes with concern that children with disabilities continue to have limited access to education due to lack of political will and financial resources for the necessary equipment and facilities.”

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

      (a) Revise and adopt legislation in order to fully protect all children with disabilities, and establish a monitoring system, which carefully records progress made and identifies shortcomings in implementation;
      (b) Provide community-based services that focus on enhancing the quality of life of children with disabilities, meeting their basic needs and ensuring their inclusion and participation;
      (c) Carry out awareness-raising campaigns to combat existing discriminatory attitudes and sensitize the public about the rights and special needs of children with disabilities, encourage their inclusion in society and promote respect for the right of children and their parents to be heard;
      (d) Make every effort to provide programmes and services for children with disabilities with adequate human and financial resources;
      (e) Equip schools with the necessary facilities for the inclusive education of children with disabilities and ensure that they can choose their preferred school or move between regular schools and special needs schools according to their best interests;
      (f) Provide assistance to non-governmental organizations (NGOs) working for and with children with disabilities;
      (g) Provide training for professional staff working with children with disabilities, such as teachers, social workers, health, medical, therapeutic and care personnel;
      (h) Take into account, in this regard, the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly res. 48/96) and the Committee’s general comment No. 9 (2006) on the rights of children with disabilities;
      (i) Ratify the 2006 Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, which it has signed, and its Optional Protocol.”

“The Committee recognizes the exceptional academic excellence delivered by the Japanese school system, but notes with concern that, in spite of the reduced numbers of children competing for admission to schools and universities, complaints about excessive competition continue to rise. It is also concerned that this highly competitive school environment may contribute to bullying, mental disorders, truancy, drop-out and suicides among children of school-going age.”

“The Committee recommends that the State party review its school and academic system with a view to combining academic excellence and child-centred promotion of capacities and to avoiding negative consequences engendered by an extremely competitive environment. In this regard, the State party is encouraged to take into account the Committee's general comment No. 1 (2001) on the aims of education. The Committee also recommends that the State party strengthen its efforts to combat bullying among peers and include children's views in the development of such measures.”

“The Committee is concerned that schools for children of Chinese, North Korean or other origin are insufficiently subsidised. It is also concerned that graduates from these schools may not be eligible for entrance examinations to universities and colleges in Japan.”

“The Committee encourages the State party to increase subsidies to non-Japanese schools and ensure that access to university and college entrance examinations is non-discriminatory. The State party is encouraged to consider ratifying the UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education.”

“The Committee is concerned at information that Japanese history textbooks do not enhance the mutual understanding of children from different countries in the region as they represent a Japanese interpretation of historical events only.”

“The Committee recommends that the State party ensure that officially reviewed textbooks present a balanced view of historical events in the Asia-Pacific region.”

(26 February 2004, CRC/C/15/Add.231, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 43, 44, 49 and 50)

“The Committee is concerned that children with disabilities, including mental disabilities, remain disadvantaged in the enjoyment of their rights guaranteed by the Convention, and are not fully integrated into the education system as well as other recreational or cultural activities.

“Taking into account the Committee's 1997 day of general discussion on ‘The rights of children with disabilities’ (CRC/C/66, annex V) and the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96 of 20 December 1993), the Committee recommends that the State party:

a) in collaboration with children with disabilities and relevant non-governmental organizations, review all policies affecting children with disabilities to ensure that they meet the needs of children with disabilities and are in accordance with the Convention and the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities;

b) promote greater integration of children with disabilities in education and recreational and cultural activities;

c) increase the human and financial resources allocated to special education and services for children with disabilities.

“The Committee notes the State party's efforts to reform the education system and bring it into greater conformity with the Convention; however, it is concerned that: ...

d) although eligibility criteria have been broadened for graduates from foreign schools in Japan applying to university, some continue to be denied access to higher education; ...

f) children of minorities have very limited opportunities for education in their own language....

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

d) expand opportunities for children from minority groups to enjoy their own culture, profess or practise their own religion and use their own language....”

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Jordan

(29 September 2006, CRC/C/JOR/CO/3, Concluding observations on third report, paras. 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 58, 59, 74, 81 and 82)

“The Committee recommends that the State party make greater efforts to ensure that all children within its jurisdiction enjoy all the rights enshrined in the Convention without discrimination, in accordance with article 2, by effectively implementing the existing laws that guarantee the principle of non-discrimination. The Committee also recommends that the State party abolish the discriminatory classification of children as “illegitimate” and adopt a proactive and comprehensive strategy to eliminate de factor discrimination on any grounds and against all vulnerable groups of children, and prioritize social and health services and equal opportunities to education for children belonging to the most vulnerable groups.

“... The Committee is also concerned that due to the traditional roles of women and men in Jordanian society, the education of girls is not seen as such a valuable investment as the education of boys.

“The Committee recommends ... that the State party promote the inclusive role of women in society, inter alia, by developing school curricula, such as recommended by the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women in its observations on the first and second periodic reports of Jordan at its twenty-second session in 2000 (A/55/38, paras. 139-193).

“The Committee remains concerned about the de facto discrimination faced by children with disabilities. It also notes with concern the inadequate implementation of the Law on the Care of the Disabled (Law No. 12 of 1993) and its amendments, particularly at the local level.

“The Committee recommends that, taking into account the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the recommendations adopted by the Committee on its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities held on 6 October 1997 (CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339), the State party prevent and prohibit all forms of discrimination against children with disabilities and ensure equal opportunities for their full participation in all spheres of life by implementing the Law on the Care of the Disabled (Law No. 12 of 1993).

“The Committee requests that specific information be included in the next periodic report on the measures and programmes relevant to the Convention adopted by the State party to follow up on the Durban Declaration and Programme of Action adopted at the 2001 World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, and taking into account the Committee’s general comment No. 1 (2001) on the aims of education.

“... Despite the establishment of mobile units to provide services for children with disabilities living in the most remote and disadvantaged regions, the Committee is concerned that many children with disabilities live in poverty and have limited access to social and health services and education.

“The Committee further recommends that the State party: ...

b) provide children with disabilities with access to adequate social and health services, including psychological and counselling services, and tailored services for children with learning difficulties and behavioural disorders, and raise awareness about all services available;

c) ensure that professionals working with and for children with disabilities, such as medical, paramedical and related personnel, teachers and social workers are adequately trained....

“In the light of articles 28 and 29 of the Convention, and taking into account the Committee’s general comment No. 1 (2001) on the aims of education, the Committee recommends that the State party continue to allocate adequate financial, human and technical resources in order to:

a) ensure that all children have equal access to quality education at all levels of the educational system....

“Despite the fact that the State party support universal education for all children, the Committee notes with particular concern that asylum-seeking and refugee children have restricted access to primary education. Reports that Jordanian public schools do not accept Iraqi refugee students and that private schools only accept Iraqis possessing residency permits are issues of serious concern to the Committee.

“The Committee recommends, referring to articles 2, 22 and 28 of the Convention, that the State party take urgent measures to ensure that asylum-seeking and refugee children have access to free primary education.”

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K

Kazakhstan

(19 June 2007, CRC/C/KAZ/CO/3, Concluding observations on second/third report, paras. 47, 48, 58 and 59)

“The Committee notes the efforts undertaken by the State party to improve the situation of children with disabilities, such as the increase of budget allocations and the training provided to medical and educational staff. However, the Committee deeply concerned that a large number of children with disabilities are in schools without special equipment and professional competence for the needs of these children. Furthermore, the Committee is concerned that the predominant method used to address these problems is still by establishing boarding schools. The Committee further notes the persisting shortage of resources for the development of educational, social and health services for children with disabilities and their families in their living environment.

“The Committee recommends that the State party, while taking into account the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the Committee’s general comment No. 9 on the rights of children with disabilities, take all necessary measures to:

a) adopt an inclusive education strategy and elaborate a plan of action in order to increase the school attendance of children with special needs and focus on day care services for these children in order to prevent their institutionalisation; ...

d) sign and ratify the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol.

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) ensure that compulsory education is free of cost and accessible for all children, by undertaking targeted programmes that address children living in rural and remote areas, children with special needs, refugee children, children of migrant workers, and children with HIV/AIDS....

“The Committee regrets that no sufficient effort has been made to effectively improve the situation of refugee children. In particular, the Committee is concerned that many of them live in severe economic hardship and their access to education and health services remains limited....

(10 July 2003, CRC/C/15/Add.213, Concluding observations on initial report, paras. 27, 28, 29, 52, 54, 55, 61, 62, 63 and 64)

“The Committee is concerned that de facto discrimination persists, in particular, for children with disabilities, children in institutions, children of single parents, children living in rural areas, children living in ecologically hazardous areas, children born at home, children belonging to minority groups and girls.

“The Committee recommends that the State party closely monitor the situation of these groups of children and develop comprehensive proactive strategies containing specific and well-targeted actions aimed at preventing and eliminating all forms of discrimination, including access to education, health care and employment.

“The Committee requests that specific information be included in the next periodic report on the measures and programmes relevant to the Convention on the Rights of the Child undertaken by the State party to follow up on the Declaration and Programme of Action adopted at the 2001 World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance and taking account of general comment No. 1 on article 29 (1) of the Convention (aims of education).

“The Committee welcomes the legislation relating to social, medical and educational support for children with special needs and is aware of the efforts of the State party to address the problems children with disabilities face, particularly relating to education, health and employment.

“The Committee is concerned at the prevailing poor situation of children with disabilities. In particular it is concerned: ...

h) at the limited inclusion of and access by children with disabilities to various areas of daily life, in particular with regard to the education system.

“In light of article 23 of the Convention, the Committee recommends that the State party: ...

e) in light of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on “The rights of children with disabilities” (CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339), further encourage their integration into the regular educational system and inclusion into society, including by providing special training to teachers and by making schools more accessible.

“... The Committee remains concerned at the many difficulties education is facing, inter alia: ...

d) important regional disparities in the number of educational establishments and in the quality of education, with rural areas being at particular disadvantage....

“The Committee recommends that the State party to:

a) ensure the availability of free primary education and accessibility for all children in the State party, giving particular attention to children in rural communities, children from minorities, including repatriates and refugees or asylum-seekers, children from disadvantaged groups and those who need special attention, and high-quality education, including in children’s own languages; ...

e) improve the quality of education in the whole country in order to achieve the goals mentioned in article 29 (1) of the Convention and the Committee’s general comment No. 1 on the aims of education, and ensure that human rights education, including children’s rights, is included into the school curricula, in the different languages of instruction where applicable.

“The Committee ... is concerned that: ...

b) problems exist in accessing education for children who have not been granted refugee status and do not have other documents that are required....

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

d) consider measures through which asylum-seeking and refugee children can be granted equal access to services, in particular education, irrespective of who they are and where they live....”

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Kenya

(19 June 2007, CRC/C/KEN/CO/2, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 45, 46, 57, 58, 69, 70)

“While welcoming the establishment of the National Council for Persons with Disabilities, the Committee remains concerned at the limited capacities for early detection and treatment of children with disabilities, the lack of governmental institutions and infrastructure to provide for the needs of disabled children, the inaccessibility of buildings and transportation for children with disabilities, and the absence of an inclusive policy for them.

“The Committee recommends that the State party take fully into account the Committee’s General Comment No. 9 (2006) on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/GC/9), and more specifically:

a) further encourage the inclusion of children with disabilities into the regular educational system and their inclusion into society;

b) pay more attention to special training for teachers and making the physical environment, including schools, sports and leisure facilities and all other public areas, accessible for children with disabilities; ...

e) increase the financial allocation given to children with disabilities in schools. The allocation of resources should take into consideration the specific needs of each child;...

“.... The Committee is concerned at ... the disparities in the access to quality education, which particularly disadvantages girls and pastoralist and hunter-gatherer children.

“The Committee further recommends that the State party, taking into account its General Comment No. 1 (CRC/GC/2001/1) on the Aims of Education: ...

d) increase enrolment in primary and secondary education, reducing socio-economic, gender, ethnic and regional disparities in the access and full enjoyment of the right to education;

e) undertake additional efforts to ensure access to informal education to vulnerable groups, including in particular pastoralist and hunter-gatherer children, as well as street children, orphans, children with disabilities, child domestic workers, children living in conflict risk areas and refugee camps by, for example, introducing mobile schools, evening classes and eliminating indirect costs of school education; ...

“The Committee acknowledges the efforts deployed by the Government to provide special treatment to children belonging to indigenous peoples, including pastoralist and hunter-gatherer communities, as well as to other minority groups. The Committee notes with concern the elevated poverty rates among these groups and the limited access of their children to basic health, sanitation and education. Despite the Government’s effort to ensure free universal primary education, enrolment and literacy rates among children from minority and indigenous peoples’ communities continuously fare below the national average, especially in the case of girls. The Committee notes that, in addition to cultural practices such as early marriages and child labour, the major reasons for their low enrolment rates are poverty and the lack of education adapted to the lifestyle of these communities....

“In the light of the recommendations adopted during its day of general discussion on the rights of indigenous children (CRC/C/133, paras. 624), the Committee recommends that the State Party: ...

c) put into place affirmative-action measures and the corresponding resources to ensure free universal primary education and basic health care for children belonging to indigenous peoples and minority communities. These measures should include further efforts to establish clinics and mobile schools, and conduct birth-registration campaigns, as well as specific incentives and training for health workers and teachers. Such measures should be developed in consultation with and with the participation of the communities concerned.”

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Kiribati

(29 September 2006, CRC/C/KIR/CO/1, Concluding observations on initial report, paras. 25, 44, 45 and 56)

“The Committee welcomes the indication by the State party that the gender gap in school enrolment has decreased....

“While noting that children with mental and physical disabilities are protected from discrimination under section 15 of the Constitution, the Committee notes with concern that the resources available for these children are inadequate. The Committee is concerned, in particular, that schooling is not possible for all children with disabilities, especially in remote areas, and that possibilities for inclusion of children with disabilities have not been explored.

“The Committee recommends that, taking into account the recommendations adopted by the Committee on its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities held on 6 October 1997 (see CRC/C/69), the State party take all necessary measures to:

a) address all forms of discrimination, including social discrimination and discrimination against children with disabilities in remote areas, giving due consideration to implementation of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96, annex);

b) pursue its efforts to provide equal educational opportunities for children with disabilities, including by providing the necessary support and ensuring that teachers are trained to education children with disabilities within regular schools.

“The Committee welcomes the reported increased access to primary and secondary education and the consequential increase in enrolment rates, as well as the reduction of the gender gap.... The insufficient bilingual education in English and I-Kiribati is also a cause of concern as it negatively impacts access to higher education, which is only available in English in neighbouring countries....”

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Kyrgyzstan

(3 November 2004, CRC/C/15/Add.244, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 47, 48, 53 and 54)

“The Committee notes with appreciation the efforts being made by the State party to provide more inclusive education for children with disabilities. However, the Committee is concerned about the still significant number of children with disabilities who do not receive an education and at the still prevalent trend of institutionalizing children with disabilities....

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

d) in light of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on “The rights of children with disabilities” (CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339), further encourage the integration of children with disabilities into the regular educational system and into society, including by providing special training to teachers and by making schools more accessible; ...

f) increase resources, both financial and human, for special education, including vocational training, and the support given to families of children with disabilities;

g) seek technical cooperation for the training of professional staff, including teachers, working with and for children with disabilities from, among others, UNICEF and WHO.

“The Committee ... is, however, concerned at the high dropout rates, especially among girls, due to forced marriages. ... The Committee is also concerned that ... access to education is made difficult for children who are migrants with no formal residence permits, working children and/or street children.

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

d) establish special educational programmes in order to accommodate the needs of working children, street children, migrants with no formal residence permits and children deprived of their liberty....”

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L

Latvia

(28 June 2006, CRC/C/LVA/CO/2, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 20, 39, 40, 41, 50, 51, 53, 63 and 64)

“The Committee ... reiterates its previous concern that the principle of non-discrimination is not fully implemented in Latvia for children belonging to minorities, including Roma children, children with disabilities, and children living in rural areas, in particular with regard to their access to adequate health and education facilities.

“... The Committee is also concerned that in spite of the declared inclusive policy of the State party, the majority of children with disabilities attend special schools, and that an unknown but allegedly high number of children do not attend school at all.

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) provide early childhood education and care and primary and secondary education for children with disabilities in a way that corresponds to the needs of these children, preferably in mainstream educational facilities, and is conducive to the child’s achievement of the fullest possible social integration and individual development, and that it provide adequate support, supervision and training to persons working with children with disabilities, including teachers in mainstream schools, and pay special attention to children not attending school; ...

d) undertake awareness-raising campaigns that focus on prevention, inclusive education, family care and the promotion of the rights of children with disabilities, as well as combating negative societal attitudes towards children with disabilities; and

e) remove physical barriers to enable effective access of children with disabilities to schools and other institutions and services.

“The Committee also urges the State party to review existing policies and practice in relation to children with disabilities, giving due attention to the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the recommendations adopted by the Committee on its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (see CRC/C/69).

“... The Committee also expresses concern regarding unsatisfactory conditions of State boarding schools for children with special needs or who are deprived of parental care.

“The Committee recommends that the State party take immediate steps to allocate appropriate financial and human resources:

a) to ensure that all children from all areas of the country, without distinction, including children in pretrial custody and detention, have equal access to quality education, including human rights education;

b) to strengthen measures aimed at decreasing drop-out and repetition rates in primary and secondary education in all regions, and to ensure that all children have equal opportunities to complete their education....

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) undertake measures to ensure the availability of adequate facilities for refugee children in Latvia, including access to legal counsel and medical care, as well as the availability of education, irrespective of the status of the refugee child....

“The Committee notes that bilingual education for minorities will be provided until the ninth grade only (end of primary education), and that comprehensive and professional secondary education, as well as vocational education, will be provided in the Latvian language only, with the exception of subjects related to language, identity and culture of minorities, which can be taught in the minority language. While the State party declares that it is carefully monitoring this process, the Committee remains concerned that those children required to learn a new language may experience difficulties in following the instruction:

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) continue to provide information to children and their parents about the shift to the Latvian language in secondary education;

b) assist children who have language deficits;

c) train teachers to ensure that children are not disadvantaged by the new medium of instruction; and

d) continue to monitor and to include information on the implementation of the language policy in the educational system in the next State party report.”

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Lebanon

(8 June 2006, CRC/C/LBN/CO/3, Concluding observations on third report, paras. 27, 28, 50, 51, 64 and 73)

“The Committee ... is concerned at the persistent de facto discrimination faced by children with disabilities, the aforementioned foreign, refugee and asylum-seeking children, Palestinian children, children living in poverty, children in conflict with the law, and children living in rural areas, especially with regard to their access to adequate social and health services and educational facilities....

“The Committee recommends that the State party strengthen its efforts to eliminate discrimination against children with disabilities, foreign, refugee and asylum-seeking children, Palestinian children, children living in poverty, children in conflict with the law, and children living in rural areas and other vulnerable groups: ...

b) by ensuring that these children have equal access to health and social services and to quality education, and that services used by these children are allocated sufficient financial and human resources....

“The Committee expresses its concern at many constraints that prevent the full implementation of the Law No. 220 of 2000 on the rights of persons with disabilities. Despite the efforts of the National Committee for Disabled Affairs and the intergovernmental; disability committee under the Ministry of Social Affairs, the Committee notes with concern that children with disabilities are not provided with equal opportunities for full participation in all spheres of life, e.g. they have limited access to the physical environment, including public buildings, and transportation, information and communication, and inclusion of these children in the mainstream school system is still occasional....

“The Committee recommends that the State party, taking into account the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (see General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the recommendations adopted by the Committee on its Day of General Discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (see CRC/C/69): ...

d) ensure that public education policy and school curricula reflect in all their aspects the principle of full participation and equality and include children with disabilities in the mainstream school system to the extent possible and, where necessary, establish special education programmes tailored to their special needs....

“The Committee recommends that the State party continue to allocate adequate financial, human and technical resources in order to: ...

c) ensure that primary education is free for all children and attended by all children, and adopt effective measures to decrease the repetition and dropout rates in primary education;

d) continue to take measures to increase enrolment rates in secondary education as well as technical and vocational education and training, including for girls, children living in rural areas, and children with disabilities....

“... the Committee continues to be deeply concerned about the harsh social and economic living conditions of Palestinian refugee children in refugee camps, their limited access to public services, including social and health services and education....”

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Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

(4 July 2003, CRC/C/15/Add.209, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 35 and 36)

“The Committee, while welcoming the efforts taken by the State party to guarantee rights to children with disabilities, remains concerned that the rights of children with disabilities have yet to be fully implemented, notably with respect to non-discrimination and to inclusion in regular education.

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) review existing policies and practice in relation to children with disabilities, taking due regard of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and of the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on children with disabilities (see CRC/C/69); ...

d) undertake greater efforts for inclusive education of children with all forms of disability....”

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Liechtenstein

(16 March 2006, CRC/C/LIE/CO/2, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 16)

“The Committee welcomes the adoption in 2003 of the five-year National Action Plan on the follow-up to the Durban Programme of Action and welcomes the inclusion in school curriculum of activities on the prevention of exclusion, intolerance and racism....”

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Lithuania

(17 March 2006, CRC/C/LTU/CO/2, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 26, 27, 28, 47, 54 and 55)

“The Committee reiterates its concern at the fact that the principle of non-discrimination is not being fully implemented for children living in vulnerable families and in institutions, children with disabilities, Roma children, refugee and asylum-seeking children and children living in rural areas, in particular with regard to their access to adequate health and educational facilities.

“The Committee recommends that the State party take more effective measures to ensure that all children within its jurisdiction enjoy all the rights enshrined in the Convention without discrimination, in accordance with article 2 of the Convention, by effectively implementing the existing laws which guarantee the principle of non-discrimination. The Committee also recommends that the State party prioritize social and health services and equal opportunities to education for children belonging to the most vulnerable groups.

“Furthermore, the Committee requests that specific information be included in the next periodic report on the measures and programmes relevant to the Convention on the Rights of the Child undertaken by the State party to follow up on the Declaration and Programme of Action adopted at the 2001 World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, also taking into account the Committee’s general comment No. 1 (2001) on article 29, paragraph 1, of the Convention (aims of education) (CRC/GC/2001/1) and general comment No. 4 (2003) on adolescent health (CRC/GC/2003/4).

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

c) further encourage their inclusion into the mainstream educational system and their integration into society;...

e) give due attention to the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on “The rights of children with disabilities” (see CRC/C/69).

“... The Committee is also concerned that there exists discrimination regarding access to education by ethnic and/or national minorities, especially Roma, and that other marginalized groups of children, including children with disabilities, as well as children in the socially and economically vulnerable families face difficulties of access to schooling....

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) take all necessary measures to ensure that articles 28 and 29 of the Convention are fully implemented, in particular with regard to children belonging to the most vulnerable groups (i.e. Roma children, those living in poverty, children with disabilities, etc.); ...

d) strengthen the support to children of the rural communities, minority groups and risk group families so that these children are able to attend school....”

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Luxembourg

(31 March 2005, CRC/C/15/Add.250, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 48, 49, 50 and 51)

“... The Committee is also concerned about the information that educational facilities for children with behavioural problems and/or learning disabilities are limited in Luxembourg and that, in some cases, these children have been excluded from regular schools and located in facilities for mentally and physically disabled children.

“The Committee ... recommends that the State party take all necessary steps to put an end to the practice of placing children with learning disabilities and/or behavioural problems in facilities for mentally and physically disabled children.

“The Committee notes with satisfaction that refugee and asylum-seeking children have free access to the school system in Luxembourg and that the Ministry of Education has appointed intercultural mediators in order to facilitate the integration of foreigners in the educational system. However, the Committee is still concerned that a large number of foreign children (more than 40 per cent of the school population) are often disadvantaged by the educational programme and teaching methods in Luxembourg, including language problems.

“The Committee recommends that the State party consider all possible measures through which foreign children and children of asylum-seekers can be granted equal access to the same standard of services in the field of education. The Committee also encourages the State party to ensure that language does not become an obstacle in education and recommends any initiative, including support classes, to help children to learn the needed languages.”

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M

Macedonia

(11 June 2010, CRC/C/MKD/CO/2 Concluding observations: The Former Yugoslav Republic Of Macedonia Paras. 7, 52, 53, 65, 66, 84 and 85. )

“The Committee urges the State party to take all necessary measures to address those recommendations from the concluding observations of the initial report (CRC/C/15/Add.118, 2000) that have not yet been implemented, including those related to the review of national legislation for compliance with the Convention, birth registration, resources available to the social work centres, and the integration of children with disabilities into educational and recreational programmes, and to provide adequate follow-up to the recommendations contained in the present concluding observations.”

“The Committee notes the efforts of the State party at developing day care centres for children with disabilities but is concerned at the persisting inadequacy of educational, social and health services for children with disabilities and their families in their own living environment. In particular, the Committee notes that there remain many obstacles to ensuring equal access to education for children with disabilities.”

“The Committee recommends that the State party, in accordance with article 23 of the Convention and taking into account its General Comment No. 9 on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/GC/9, 2006), continue to strengthen measures to protect and promote the rights of children with disabilities, inter alia, by:

      (a) Developing a comprehensive policy for the protection of children with disabilities and for their equal access to social, educational and other services;
      (b) Undertaking greater efforts to make available the necessary resources, especially at the local level, and to promote and expand community-based and family-focussed programmes, including parent support groups;
      (c) Pursuing efforts to ensure that children with disabilities, including moderate and severe developmental disabilities, are able to exercise their right to education to the maximum extent possible;
      (d) Creating the conditions for participation of children with disabilities in the elaboration, execution and evaluation of programmes directed to them;
      (e) Providing training for professional staff working with children with disabilities such as teachers, social and health care workers.”

“The Committee notes that the right to education of all nationals and resident stateless children is guaranteed by law, that efforts have been made to improve the quality of education, and that the State party plans to introduce conditional cash transfers with a view to encouraging enrolment and attendance in secondary schools. The Committee is, nevertheless, concerned that:

      (a) There exist barriers to accessing education for children lacking birth registration and identity documents, children with disabilities and children in street situations;
      (b) There is an increasing trend of separation along ethnic lines in schools, which has resulted in disparities in the quality of education and limited opportunities for children belonging to the different communities to interact with one another and in the intensification of inter-ethnic violence;
      (c) The primary-level enrolment and completion rates remain low for Roma children, particularly girls, and that Roma children experience segregation and discriminatory treatment in schools;
      (d) Roma children are allegedly overrepresented in schools for children with special needs and that the decision to refer children to such schools is not done by interdisciplinary teams and based on objective criteria;
      (e) There is low availability of holistic early childhood development and education, facilities and institutions; and
      (f) Religious education may be a factor of division and conflict among children in school and does not sufficiently contribute to a spirit of understanding, tolerance and friendship among all ethnic and religious groups as stipulated in Article 29(1)(d) of the Convention.”

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

      (a) Undertake immediate measures to ensure that children are not denied access to education on any grounds;
      (b) Develop specialised services to prepare children in street situations for reintegration into the school system;
      (c) Work with the communities to encourage the enrolment of children in ethnically-mixed schools and provide in practice possibilities for children from the different communities to study together in a manner that allows every-day interaction and possibilities to learn about one another. The State party should undertake immediate measures to reverse the current trend of segregation along ethnic lines at all levels – national, regional and municipal;
      (d) Taking into account its General Comment No. 1 (CRC/GC/2001/1) on the aims of education and Article 29(1) of the Convention, the Committee recommends that the State party invest in the training of teachers, in the development of curricula, textbooks and other aides for the active promotion of understanding, peace, tolerance and multi-cultural solidarity and cohesion among the different ethnic and religious communities;
      (e) Continue and strengthen the measures to promote the integration of Roma children in mainstream education, especially by sensitising teachers and other professionals and assisting families in economic hardship;
      (f) Strengthen measures to ensure that the decision to refer children to special schools is based on objective criteria, is taken by an interdisciplinary team of professionals, is subject to a periodic review, takes due account of the child’s linguistic and cultural background, and is not based on socio-economic reasons;
      (g) Promote, develop and ensure access to early childhood development and education, especially for children at risk of delayed development and socioeconomic deprivation, taking into account the Committee’s General Comment No. 7 on implementing child rights in early childhood (CRC/C/GC/7); …
      (i) Ensure that religious education is optional taking into consideration the best interests of the child, and is conducted in a manner that contributes to a spirit of understanding, tolerance and friendship among all ethnic and religious groups as stipulated in article 29(1)(d) of the Convention.”

“While noting with appreciation that mother tongue education is available for most communities, namely in the Macedonian, Albanian, Turkish and Serbian languages and the introduction of “Romani language and culture”, the Committee regrets the limited availability and lower quality of education in the language of certain minorities, particularly the Roma and Vlach communities.”

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

      (a) Take all necessary measures to protect the rights of children belonging to minority groups, respect their culture and guarantee their enjoyment of the rights enshrined in the national constitution, domestic law and the Convention;
      (b) Train educators and develop curricula, textbooks and other aides in order to increase the availability and raise the quality of minority language education, particularly for Roma (for all those groups who are using their own language) and Vlach children; and
      (c) Ratify the European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages, which it has already signed.”

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Madagascar

(27 October 2003, CRC/C/15/Add.218, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 25, 27, 53, 54, 57 and 58)

“... the Committee is concerned at the disparities in the enjoyment of rights, e.g. to education, experienced by children belonging to the most vulnerable groups, including girls, children with disabilities, children born out of wedlock and children living in remote areas....

“The Committee requests that specific information be included in the next periodic report on the measures and programmes relevant to the Convention on the Rights of the Child undertaken by the State party to follow up on the Declaration and Programme of Action adopted at the World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, taking account of general comment No. 1 on article 29, paragraph 1, of the Convention (aims of education).

“... the Committee is concerned at the ... limited specialized health care, education and employment possibilities available for them....

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

d) review the situation of children with disabilities in terms of their access to suitable health care, education services and employment opportunities;

e) take note of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (see CRC/C/69); ...

g) strengthen policies and programmes of inclusion in regular education, train teachers and make schools accessible...

“The Committee ... remains deeply concerned at the high illiteracy rate in the State party, which affects more women than men ... and the important regional disparities between rural and urban areas. ... The Committee also welcomes the efforts undertaken by the State party to increase the enrolment of girls in school, notably through the National Plan of Action for Education of Girls (PANEF - 1996-2000), but it remains concerned at the disparities in school enrolment between boys and girls, with a much lower rate for the latter....

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) ensure that all children, especially girls, wherever they live, including in the least developed areas, have equal access to educational opportunities; ...

h) take measures to enable children with disabilities to have access to regular schools and to ensure that these children have access to formal and vocational educational opportunities; ...

j) provide teachers with adequate training and encourage more women to become teachers....”

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Malawi

(30 January 2009, CRC/C/MDA/CO/2 Unedited version, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 50, 62, 63, 64 and 65)

“In light of the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the Committee’s general comment No. 9 on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/GC/9, 2006), the Committee recommends that the State party:

f) provide training for professional staff working with children with disabilities, such as medical, paramedical and related personnel, teachers and social workers; and

g) Consider ratifying the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol.

“The Committee notes the adoption of the National Education Sector Plan and the Policy for Investment Framework. The Committee also notes the efforts made by the State party in order to achieve MDG 2 (primary education for all) and MDG 3 (gender parity). It further welcomes the special attention given to Early Childhood Education as well as the introduction of a Re-entry Policy to ensure that pregnant children can go back to school and the decrease of drop-out rates. However, the Committee remains concerned that while primary school is free it is not compulsory, and there are persistent gender and regional disparities, low quality of education, particularly due to limited number of teachers and high level of abuse and violence in the schools.

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) ensure that primary education is compulsory, free of direct and indirect costs and accessible to all children, including children living in rural and remote areas; ...

h) take into account the Committee’s general comment No. 1 (CRC/GC/2001/1) on the aims of education; and

i) seek technical assistance from UNICEF and UNESCO.

“While noting the information that the State party has established primary schools in refugee camps, and where there are no schools in the camps, children are allowed access to local schools, the Committee remains concerned at the lack of data on refugee children attending schools and accessing health care facilities, as noted in State party’s report.

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) allocate adequate resources to ensure refugee children greater access to education and health care facilities; ....”

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Malaysia

(2 February 2007, CRC/C/MYS/CO/1 Unedited Version, Concluding observations on initial report, paras. 33, 34, 60, 61, 73, 74, 75, 83 and 84)

“Despite the efforts of the State party to address the issue of equality between sexes, the Committee notes with concern that the persistence of stereotypical attitudes concerning the roles and responsibilities of women and men still constitute an impediment to the full enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms by girls.

“The Committee recommends ... that the State party promote the inclusive role of women in society, among other things, by developing school curricula, such as recommended by the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women in its observations on the combined initial and second periodic report of Malaysia at its thirty-fifth session in 2006 (crc/C/MYS/CO/2, paras. 15-16).

“The Committee notes with appreciation that a number of measures have been taken by the State party to improve the situation of children with disabilities, particularly the establishment of community based rehabilitation centres which provide diagnosis, rehabilitation, treatment and special education for children with disabilities.

“The Committee recommends that the State party, taking into account the Committee’s General Comment No. 9 (2006) on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/GC/9), take all necessary measures to:

d) continue and increase the provision of community based programmes and services in order to allow children with disabilities to stay at home with their families; and

e) sign and ratify the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol once open for ratification.

“The Committee commends the State party’s progress in quantitative expansion and qualitative upgrading of the educational system. It welcomes the Education Amendment Act 2002 (Act A1152) which made primary education compulsory to all children aged 6. The Committee notes as a positive factor that the enrolment rate of girls and boys in primary education is relatively equal.... The Committee also regrets that many children, in particular boys, drop out from secondary education....

“The Committee notes with appreciation the State party’s efforts to address the special educational needs of indigenous children and in particular the Orang Asli but it notes with deep concern their high drop-out rate....

“In the light of articles 28 and 29 of the Convention, and taking into account the Committee’s General Comment No. 1 (2001) on the aims of education (CRC/GC/2001/1), the Committee’s recommends that the State party continue to allocate adequate financial, human and technical resources in order to:

a) ensure that all children have equal access to quality education at all levels of the educational system and also ensure that access to education is not impeded by economic shortcomings;

b) continue to take measures to prevent children from dropping out of primary and secondary education, paying special attention to the causes resulting in the drop-out of boys, and take all necessary measures to address regional disparities in this respect;

c) strengthen its efforts to address the special educational needs of the Orang Asli and children from other indigenous groups, including by implementing “Stay with the School Programme”....

“The Committee notes with concern that many asylum-seeking and refugee children, among them the Muslim children from Myanmar, including the Rohingya refugee children who have lived in Malaysia since 1990s, lack access to formal education.

“With reference to articles 2, 22 and 28 of the Convention, the Committee recommends, that the State party take urgent measures to ensure that asylum-seeking and refugee children have access to free and formal primary, secondary and other forms of education, and that in particular refugee and asylum-seeking children who are engaged in informal education have access to official exams.”

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Maldives

(13 July 2007, CRC/C/MDV/C0/3, Concluding observations on third report, paras. 35, 36, 37, 38, 65, 66, 77 and 78)

“Despite the efforts of the State party to address the issue of equality between the sexes, including through Maldives Vision 2020, the Committee continues to be disappointed that the persistence of stereotypical attitudes concerning the roles and responsibilities of women and men still constitute an impediment to the full enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms by girls. In particular, the Committee notes with concern that there is an emerging trend amongst certain religious groups to keep girls out of school.

“The Committee recommends that the State party continue to address the problems faced by the girl child and to campaign and create awareness among the population of the equality of girls and boys. The Committee suggests that local, religious and other leaders be invited to take a more active role in supporting the efforts to prevent and eliminate discrimination against the girl child and to provide guidance to communities in this regard. It also recommends that the State party promote the inclusive role of women in society, among other things, by developing textbooks and educational materials in schools, as recommended by the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (crc/C/MDV/CO/3, paras. 17-18) in January 2007.

“The Committee remains concerned about the de facto discrimination faced by children with disabilities. It notes with concern that children with disabilities have limited access to social and health-care services and that they have very few opportunities for inclusive education....

“The Committee recommends that the State party, taking into account the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the Committee’s General Comment No. 9 (2006) on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/GC/9), prevent and prohibit all forms of discrimination against children with disabilities and ensure equal opportunities for their full participation in all spheres of life by implementing the Section 5 of Law No. 9/91 and other relevant provisions of domestic law....

“... The Committee regrets that a very limited number of children with disabilities are included in the mainstream education....

“The Committee recommends that the State party, taking into account the Committee’s General Comment No. 9 (2006) on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/GC/9), take all necessary measures: ...

d) to ensure that public education policy and school curricula reflect in all their aspects the principle of full participation and equality and include children with disabilities in the mainstream school system to the extent possible and, where necessary, establish special education programmes tailored to their special needs; ...

f) to ensure that professionals working with and for children with disabilities, such as medical, paramedical and related personnel, teachers and social workers are adequately trained;

g) to sign and ratify the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol....

“The Committee is concerned that gender biases and stereotypes in school textbooks, curricula and school management as well as the lack of appropriate sanitary facilities, including separate toilets, impede the full participation of girls in education, particularly in secondary schools.

“In the light of article 28 of the Convention, Committee recommends that the State party continue to allocate adequate financial, human and technical resources in order to: ...

c) remove gender biases and stereotypes from school textbooks and ensure the provision of girls’ sanitary facilities in all schools, and also provide school management and personnel with gender training....”

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Mali

(3 May 2007, CRC/C/MLI/CO/2, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 48, 49, 60 and 61)

“While noting the development and increase in programmes and training courses related to children with disabilities as well as their inclusion into the regular educational system, the Committee is concerned at the lack of information and statistical data on the status of children with disabilities. The Committee is further concerned at reports that services for children with disabilities may be insufficient and are being reduced, that public area are not at all accessible for children with disabilities and that the legal framework to address the specific needs of children with disabilities is lacking.

“The Committee recommends that the State party, while taking into account the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the Committee’s general comment No. 9 on the rights of children with disabilities, take all necessary measures to:

a) continue to encourage the inclusion of children with disabilities into the regular educational system and into society, inter alia by giving more attention to special training for teachers and making the physical environment – including schools, sports and leisure facilities and all other public areas – accessible for children with disabilities;

b) adopt an inclusive and rights-based legal framework that addresses the specific needs of children with disabilities;...

e) sign and ratify the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol once open for ratification.

“The Committee acknowledged the efforts of the State party towards improving access to education, including for children with disabilities and nomadic children, increasing attendance rates and combating gender disparities by achieving education for all by 2015. However, it remains deeply concerned at the persistence of low rates of school enrolment and especially at the gender and geographical disparities with regard to access to education. The Committee is also concerned at ... the high dropout and repetition rates, particularly of girls....

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) continue with its programme to achieve education for all by 2015 by paying particular attention to increasing enrolment and enrolment parity between girls and boys and between urban, rural and remote areas....”

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Marshall Islands

(19 November 2007, CRC/C/MHL/CO/2, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 48, 49, 62 and 64)

“The Committee is concerned ... at the limited access of children with disabilities to specialized educational programmes, in particular in the outer islands, as well as at the absence of specialized programmes outside the school environment.

“The Committee recommends that the State party, in accordance with the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and General Comment No. 9 on the rights of children with disabilities:

a) further encourage the inclusion of children with disabilities into the regular educational system and into society;

b) facilitate access of children with disabilities to specialized educational programmes when required, in particular in the outer islands, including programmes outside the school environment;

c) pay more attention to special training for teachers and make the physical environment, including schools, sports and leisure facilities and all other public areas, accessible for children with disabilities; ...

g) sign and ratify the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol once open for ratification.

“The Committee is concerned ... at the decline in female enrolment both at the elementary and secondary levels....

“The Committee recommends that the State party, while taking into account General Comment No. 1 on the aims of education, undertake measures to adopt the deficiencies in the area of education, inter alia by: ...

c) promoting female enrolment and ensuring the reduction of the dropout rate for both male and female students....”

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Mauritania

(12 June 2009, CRC/C/MRT/CO/2 Advance unedited version, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 54, 65, 66, 67, 68 and 70)

“The Committee recommends that the State party, while taking into account the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the recommendations of the Committee’s Day of General Discussion on children with disabilities (1997), take all necessary measures to: ...

c) provide children with disabilities with access to ... quality education;

d) ensure that professionals working with and for children with disabilities, such as medical, paramedical and related personnel, teachers and social workers are adequately trained;

e) consider ratifying the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol. “The Committee ... recognises ... efforts to improve literacy rates among girls. The Committee however remains concerned ... over the high illiteracy rates, especially among girls, and over the regional disparities in access to education....

“The Committee recommends that the State party, taking into account its General Comment No. 1 (2001) on the aims of education;

a) ensure that primary education is free (without hidden costs) and accessible and take the necessary measures to ensure that all children are enrolled in primary education;

b) continue to increase public expenditure for education, in particular primary education with specific attention to improving access and addressing gender, socio-economic, ethnic and regional disparities in the enjoyment of the right to education;

c) train more teachers, especially female and improve school facilities, notably water and sanitation, including separate facilities for boys and girls, in particular in rural areas; ...

e) undertake additional efforts to ensure access to adaptable informal education of high quality to vulnerable groups; including ... children with disabilities ... and refugee and migrant children as well as children in remote and rural areas, inter alia by addressing indirect and hidden costs of school education;

f) further expand pre-school facilities supplied with qualified teachers, and make special attempts to include children from vulnerable and school distant groups at early ages; ...

j) seek technical assistance from UNESCO and UNICEF, in particular to improve access to education for girls.

“The Committee notes as positive the efforts by the State party to resolve the situation of those who were exiled two decades ago and to facilitate the return of refugees and their families.... The Committee notes that particular challenges remain in providing access to education for these children.

“The Committee urges the State party to:

a) strengthen its efforts to facilitate return of refugees and their families by adopting a comprehensive and long-term reintegration strategy for returnees which inter alia ensures the inclusion of children, including non-Arabic speakers, into the Mauritanian education system....

“The Committee urges the State party to take all measures to guarantee protection of refugee children in line with international human rights and refugee law, while taking into account the Committee’s General Comment No. 6 (2005) on the treatment of unaccompanied and separated children outside their country of origin. Specifically, the Committee urges the State party to ensure that unaccompanied children receive protection, access to ... education.”

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Mauritius

(17 March 2006, CRC/C/MUS/CO/2, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 50 and 51)

“The Committee notes the progress made by the State party, especially in codifying the Mauritian sign language and in launching a dictionary of such language. However, it remains concerned about the low proportion of children with disabilities attending schools, particularly due to the poor accessibility to schools most of which are located in the urban areas. It is further concerned about the reluctance of schools to admit children with disabilities as this is perceived to slow down teaching....

“The Committee recommends that the State party, taking into account the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339), further encourage the integration of children with disabilities into the regular educational system and their fullest possible social integration....”

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Mexico

(2 June 2006, CRC/C/MEX/CO/3 Unedited version, Concluding observations on third report, paras. 23, 46, 47, 56, 57, 72 and 73)

“The Committee is deeply concerned about the significant disparities in the State party in the implementation of the rights enshrined in the Convention, reflected in a range of social indicators like enrolment in and completion of education, infant mortality and access to health care, indicating persistent discrimination against indigenous children, girls, children with disabilities, children living in rural and remote areas and children from economically disadvantaged families.

“... The Committee also notes with concern the large number of children with disabilities who do not attend any form of school education, especially in rural areas; and the lack of an integration policy in general for these children.

“The Committee recommends that the State party take all the necessary measures: ...

c) to provide equal opportunities for children with disabilities, including by providing the necessary support and ensuring that teachers are trained to educate children with disabilities within regular schools.

“... the Committee is concerned at continuing low enrolment rates, especially among migrants and indigenous children; the insufficient resources allocated to education; the considerable disparities in the coverage and quality of education between urban and rural areas; the high dropout rates, particularly among adolescents as well as rural, indigenous and migrant children; and the low quality of teaching. The insufficient bilingual inter-cultural education in indigenous areas is also a cause of concern as it negatively affects the drop out rate in these areas....

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

c) strengthen measures to reduce the high drop-out rate among indigenous children, inter alia by providing them with bilingual and bicultural education; ...

e) strengthen educational and vocational programmes, in particular for children who do not attend regular school education, especially migrant children....

“While welcoming the measures taken to encourage indigenous children to attend schools, the Committee remains deeply concerned at the limited enjoyment of rights by indigenous children, especially indigenous migrant workers, in particular their very limited access to education and health....

“The Committee recommends that the State party take all necessary measures to protect the rights of indigenous children against discrimination and to guarantee their enjoyment of the rights enshrined in domestic law and in the Convention. The Committee further recommends that the State party provide indigenous communities, with sufficient information, in their own language as well as in a child friendly format, regarding ... education and health....”

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Mongolia

(2 September 2005, CRC/C/15/Add.264, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 22, 23, 24, 41, 42, 51, 52, 53 and 69)

“The Committee ... is concerned at the persistent de facto discrimination faced by children with disabilities, children living in poverty, children in conflict with law, street children, children living in rural areas and also children who have migrated from the rural areas and are living in the capital without official registration, especially with regard to their access to adequate social and health services and educational facilities.

“... The Committee recommends that the State party adopt a proactive and comprehensive strategy to eliminate de facto discrimination on any grounds and against all vulnerable groups of children and that it prioritize social and health services and equal opportunities to education for children belonging to the most vulnerable groups.

“The Committee requests that specific information be included in the next periodic report on the measures and programs relevant to the Convention on the Rights of the Child undertaken by the State party to follow up on the Declaration and Programme of Action adopted at the World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance and taking account of the Committee’s general comment No. 1 (2001) on the aims of education.

“... The Committee also notes with concern that the high number of children with disabilities have neither adequate access to social and health services nor to education....

“The Committee urges the State party, taking into account the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities and the recommendations adopted by the Committee on its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (see CRC/C/69): ...

d) to take all necessary measures to include children with disabilities in the mainstream school system to the extent possible and, where necessary, to establish special education programmes tailored for their special needs....

“While noting with appreciation the State party’s efforts to improve the standard of education and to secure access to education by implementing the revised Law on Education adopted in 1995, the Committee is concerned about the remaining difficulties encountered by children, especially in rural areas of the country, in their access to education and attendance in school. The high number of primary-school-aged children not enrolled in school, including gender and regional disparities in school enrolment, the increasing rates of illiteracy and the high rate of school drop-outs, especially in rural areas, give cause for serious concerns.

“The Committee reiterates its concern about boys belonging to herder families and living in rural areas who are at a higher risk of dropout from school and being involved in child labour....

“The Committee recommends that the State party take immediate measures to allocate adequate financial and human resources in order:

a) to progressively ensure that all children, without any distinction by gender, from all areas of the country, have equal access to quality education without any financial obstacles and to also consider the reinstatement of neighbourhood schools in order to facilitate children’s access to education;

b) to strengthen measures aimed at increasing enrolment rates in primary and secondary education without any regional disparities and to secure that all children have equal opportunities to complete their education....

“The Committee regrets that it has been largely precluded, through lack of information in the report, from examining compliance of the State party’s obligations with the rights guaranteed under article 30 of the Convention with regard to children belonging to minorities, such as Khazakhs and Tsaatans. The Committee is concerned about the limited enjoyment of their human rights, particularly concerning their access to social and health services and education.”

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Montenegro

(1 October 2010, CRC-C-MNE-CO-1 Concluding Observations: Montenegro Paras. 13, 14, 25, 26, 27, 47, 48, 59 and 60 9)

“The Committee is concerned at the inadequately low proportion of State annual budget allocated to health care, family support and other areas of direct relevance to children, and the decrease in allocations for education.”

“The Committee recommends the prioritization of children’s rights and welfare in the State party’s budget policy. In this regard, the Committee recommends that the State party, in accordance with article 4 of the Convention, further increase budget allocations for the implementation of the rights recognized in the Convention and especially for education, health care and family support. In this regard the Committee urges the State party to pay particular attention to economically disadvantaged, marginalized and neglected children, including Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian children and children with disabilities, with a view to alleviating disparities, deficits and inequalities …”

“While noting the efforts undertaken by the State party to counter discrimination especially against minorities through a variety of laws, strategies, plan of actions and projects, the Committee is concerned at the persistent de facto discrimination against inter alia children belonging to minority groups, refugee children, and children with disabilities, in particular with regard to access to education, health care and housing.”

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

      (a) Effectively ensure that all children within its jurisdiction enjoy the rights enshrined in the Convention without discrimination, in accordance with article 2 of the Convention by implementing the existing laws; and
      (b) Continue to undertake comprehensive public education campaigns to prevent and combat negative societal attitudes and behavior based on sex, age, race, nationality, ethnicity, religion and disability.”

“The Committee requests that specific information be included in the next periodic report on the measures and programmes relevant to the Convention undertaken by the State party to follow up on the Durban Declaration and Programme of Action adopted at the 2001 World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, and at the Durban Review Conference in April 2009, also taking into account the Committee’s general comment No. 1 (2001) on the aims of education.”

“While welcoming the adoption of a number of strategies for the social integration of children with disabilities the Committee is deeply concerned at the societal discriminatory attitudes faced by these children.. Furthermore, the Committee is concerned at the lack of statistical data on children with disabilities. While noting that the situation in the institution “Komanski Most” has been addressed to a certain degree, through the Spate party’s efforts to provide services for children in separate buildings, the Committee is concerned that children with disabilities are still placed in the institution for adults. The Committee is also concerned at the persisting shortage of resources for the development of educational, social and health services for children with disabilities and their families and at the shortage of early intervention services for these children.”

“The Committee recommends that the State party, while taking into account the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the Committee’s general comment No. 9 (CRC/C/GC/9) on the rights of children with disabilities, take all necessary measures to:

      (a) Undertake long-term awareness raising programmes in order to change and combat negative societal attitudes prevailing against children with disabilities;
      (b) Collect adequate statistical data on children with disabilities;
      (c) Develop a comprehensive national policy on disability, which promotes the full enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms by all children with disabilities, with special focus on deinstitutionalization and the right to live in their families and communities;
      (d) Provide children with disabilities and their families with adequate support, including access to social protection to allow them to remain within their families;
      (e) Expand, as indicated by the State party, the network of Day Care Centers for Children with Disabilities who cannot be integrated into the regular educational system;
      (f) Establish a monitoring system for residential care institutions which closely examines the rights of children with disabilities, as well as ensure that monitoring incorporates concrete steps to follow up recommended actions, and favours the participation of civil society organizations;
      (g) Provide training for professional staff working with children with disabilities, such as teachers, social workers and medical, paramedical and related personnel;
      (h) Continue its efforts to include children with disabilities in the general school system, provide the needed personnel and material resources to the schools in which these children are enrolled and reduce the number of schools for children with special educational needs to the unavoidable minimum; and
      (i) Undertake greater efforts to make available the necessary professional (i.e. disability specialists) and financial resources, especially at the local level, and to promote and expand community-based early intervention and rehabilitation programmes, including parent support groups.”

“While welcoming the State party’s education reform, as well as the efforts undertaken to better integrate Roma children in mainstream schools as well as the Strategy for inclusive education adopted in 2008, the Committee is concerned at the limited achievements reached through these measures. The Committee is particularly concerned at:

      (a) The low quality of education, including poor school equipment and the low teacher/pupil ratio;
      (b) Hidden expenses resulting from the purchase of textbooks and school accessories;
      (c) The barriers to accessing education for children lacking birth registration and identity documents, Roma children and children with disabilities;
      (d) The large number of Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian children that are still not enrolled in schools, have lower school attendance rates and have a high drop-out rate;
      (e) The lack of data on education;
      (f) The prevalence of violence in schools; and
      (g) The low availability of holistic early childhood development and education, facilities and institutions.”

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

      (a) Increase the quality of schools, in particular by introducing interactive teaching methods, better equipment of schools, increasing the teacher/pupil ratio, teacher training and in-service training and active involvement of teachers in reform processes;
      (b) Ensure that education is also de facto free of charge;
      (c) Undertake immediate measures to ensure that children are not denied access to education on any grounds;
      (d) Strengthen its efforts to integrate Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian children into the general school system by enhanced teacher training, curriculum revisions and appropriate teaching and learning methods as well as intensified parental education and participation;
      (e) Undertake measures to effectively address the comparatively higher drop-out rates among Roma children and ensure that Roma children are adequately prepared for higher education and vocational training;
      (f) Collect adequate statistical data on education;
      (g) Continue to implement prevention programmes in order to promote non violent relations and to end violence in schools; and
      (h) Raise awareness with respect to pre-schools and early-learning opportunities by taking into account the Committee’s General Comment No. 7 (2005) on implementing child rights in early childhood (CRC/C/GC/7/Rev.1).”

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Morocco

(10 July 2003, CRC/C/15/Add.211, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 50, 51, 54 and 55)

“... The Committee remains concerned at the lack of statistical data on children with disabilities in the State party, at the situation of children with physical and mental disabilities and, in particular, at the limited specialized health care, education and employment possibilities available to them and at the very high rate of illiteracy among children with disabilities.

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) review the situation of these children in terms of their access to suitable health care, education services and employment opportunities and allocate adequate resources to strengthen services for children with disabilities, support their families and train professionals in the field;

c) take note of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96, annex) and of the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339)....

“The Committee also welcomes the efforts undertaken by the State party in this regard through the Five-Year Development Plan, as well as through the National Programme for Education and Human Rights launched in 1994, and the programme of cooperation with UNICEF to increase the school enrolment of girls (1997-2001), but remains concerned at the high illiteracy rate, notably among women. In addition, the Committee is concerned at the high drop-out and repetition rates, gender and regional disparities in the education system, the cost of primary education (supplies, textbooks, etc.) and the decreasing enrolment in early childhood education....

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) progressively ensure that girls and boys, from urban, rural and least developed areas, all have equal access to educational opportunities, without any financial obstacles....”

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Mozambique

(October 2009, CRC/C/MOZ/CO/2 Unedited Version, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 29, 59, 60, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75 and 76)

“While noting efforts made to provide services for all children to enjoy their rights, the Committee is deeply concerned at the significant and persistent disparities among different regions of the State party resulting in the unequal enjoyment by children of the rights enshrined in the Convention. The disparities are reflected in a range of demographic and social indicators including enrolment in and completion of education, infant mortality rates and access to health care and indicate persistent discrimination against girls, children with disabilities, children living in rural and remote areas and children from economically disadvantaged families....

“While noting that some measures have been taken by the State party to prevent and treat mental disabilities among children and train teachers for specialized education, the Committee is concerned that in spite of its previous recommendations (CRC/C/15/Add.172 paras. 48 and 49), insufficient measures have been adopted to ensure that children with disabilities fully enjoy their rights, in particular their right to health and education. The Committee is especially concerned at the limited number of school facilities and materials adapted to these children and at the highly inadequate number of specialized teachers resulting in a high percentage of children with disabilities deprived of education or abandoning school during the first years of primary education.

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) consider ratifying the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities;

b) take all necessary measures to ensure the implementation of legislation providing protection and equal access to education for children with disabilities, in a gender sensitive manner;

c) make every effort to provide appropriate inclusive programmes and services for all children with disabilities and ensure that such services receive adequate human and financial resources; ...

e) provide training for professional staff working with children with disabilities, such as teachers, social workers, medical, paramedical and related personnel; ...

g) take into consideration the Committee’s General Comment No. 9 on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/GC/9, 2006).

“The Committee ... is concerned that: ...

c) significant disparities in accessing education persist between provinces, particularly affecting the provinces of Niassa, Nampula and Zambezia; ...

g) gender disparity remains high in the higher levels of education.

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) reduce disparities among provinces in access to and full enjoyment of the right to education; ...

l) take into consideration General Comment No. 1 on the aims of education of 2001 and General Comment No.7 on Implementing child rights in early childhood of 2005.

“The Committee expresses serious concern at the high prevalence of sexual abuse and harassment in schools which lead some girls reportedly to refuse to go to school.

“Drawing attention to the Committee’s recommendations of the Day of General Discussion on Violence against Children, within the Family and in Schools held in 2001, the Committee urges the State party to :

a) design strategies to prevent the occurrence of sexual violence in schools by organizing nationwide communications programmes on the impact of sexual violence in school and strengthen the recruitment of female teachers who provide valuable role models to young girls and lessen the probability of abuse by teachers;

b) encourage school and health services to detect and report evidence of abuse, ensure full and unannounced inspection of school facilities and wide publicity of the investigations conducted and establish clear reporting systems of cases of violence in schools;

c) take all the necessary measures to prevent, prosecute and sanction teachers who commit sexual violence; and

d) when reformulating the Code of Conduct for teachers and school personnel promoted by the National Teachers Union (ONP), take into consideration the recommendation made by the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW/C/MOZ/CO/2 para. 21) “to create a conducive environment towards a positive cultural change”, and ensure that teachers adhere to the Code of Conduct and that the Code is incorporated into the regular teacher training programmes which should contain a special emphasis on teachers’ responsibilities to protect children.

“The Committee notes with satisfaction the creation of a National Refugee Support Institute (INAR) through Decree No. 51/2003 of 24 December 2003 with the aim, notably, to ensure the enjoyment by refugee children of their rights to education, health care, social security and protection as well as the establishment within the Marratane refugee centre of a primary school and a health centre. The Committee is however concerned at the high level of ethnic tension and violence among children in the camp and in the school where corporal punishment is inflicted by teachers on children....

“The Committee recommends that the State party, in cooperation with UNHCR, take all measures to guarantee protection of refugee children in line with international human rights and refugee law, while taking into account the Committee’s General Comment No. 6 of 2005 on the treatment of unaccompanied and separated children outside their country of origin. In particular, the Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) organize school observation visits and teacher training on discrimination;

c) take the necessary measures to prevent sexual violence, including ensuring separate lockable latrines for girls at schools....”

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Myanmar

(30 June 2004, CRC/C/15/Add.237, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 50, 51, 62, 63, 65 and 79)

“The Committee is concerned at ... the limited facilities and services for children with disabilities, especially those in rural and remote areas, and the limited number of trained teachers to work with children with disabilities. Efforts to facilitate their inclusion into the educational system and the society at large are insufficient.

“In line with the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the recommendations adopted by the Committee at its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/69), it is recommended that the State party: ...

c) establish special education programmes for disabled children and include them in the regular school system to the extent possible; ...

e) allocate further resources for special education, including vocational training, and for the support given to families of children with disabilities; and (f) Seek technical cooperation for the training of professional staff working with and for children with disabilities from, inter alia, UNICEF and WHO.

“The Committee welcomes the launching in 2000 of the Special Four-Year Plan for Education (2000/01-2003/04) aimed at promoting the basic education sector, and of the “Education for All” National Action Plan introduced in 2003 which is aimed specifically at the “access, quality and relevance” of education, but is seriously concerned at the following problematic aspects of the existing education system:

a) the low quality of education reflected in the high repetition and dropout rates, which affect more girls than boys;

b) the significant variation in school enrolment between urban and rural areas, and the particularly low level of enrolment of children belonging to minority groups....

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

e) strengthen its efforts to progressively ensure that girls as well as boys, from urban, rural and remote areas, and children belonging to minority groups all have equal access to educational opportunities;

f) adapt school curriculum to suit the particularities of the local communities, in particular for ethnic minority groups, and make use of local teachers to help children who are experiencing language difficulties....

“In light of articles 7, 22 and other relevant provisions of the Convention, the Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) strengthen its efforts to provide adequate assistance to internally displaced children, including their access to food, education and health, and to support the return home of internally displaced populations and their reintegration into their communities....

“The Committee is deeply concerned about the situation of the children of the Bengali people residing in northern Rakhine State, also known as the Rohingyas, and of children belonging to other ethnic, indigenous or religious minorities and in particular that many of their rights are denied, including the rights to food, to health care, to education, to survival and development, to enjoy their own culture and to be protected from discrimination.”

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N

Nepal

(21 September 2005, CRC/C/15/Add.261, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 58, 59, 75, 76, 78 and 80)

“While acknowledging the development of a national policy on persons with disabilities and the existence of laws that provide for the rights of children with disabilities, including the 1982 Disabled Protection and Welfare Act, the 1971 Education Act and the 1992 Children’s Act, and the establishment of a National Disability Service Coordination Committee in 2000 to develop and support programmes for persons with disabilities, the Committee remains concerned that: ...

c) insufficient efforts have been made to facilitate the inclusion of children with disabilities into the educational system and society in general, including efforts to change traditional attitudes towards persons with disabilities and improve the access to information, medical facilities, etc.

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

c) assess the situation of these children in terms of their access to suitable health care, educational services and employment opportunities, and allocate adequate resources to strengthen services for children with disabilities, support their families and train professionals in the field;

d) in the light of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339), further encourage the integration of children with disabilities into the regular educational system and their inclusion in society, inter alia by giving more attention to special training for teachers and making the physical environment, including schools, sports and leisure facilities and all other public areas, accessible for children with disabilities....

“... The Committee is also concerned about the high dropout rate, and that significant inequality exists in access to education, in part due to the hidden costs associated with schooling, and that a large proportion of girls and children from disadvantaged backgrounds such as Dalit children and children with disabilities remain deprived of educational opportunities.

“The Committee recommends that the State party carefully examine the budget allocations and measures taken within the field, with regard to their impact on the progressive implementation of the child’s right to education and leisure activities. In particular, the Committee recommends that the State party: ...

d) take further measures to improve the accessibility, in particular for girls, to education of all children, with a view to eliminating the prevailing disparities between girls and boys, as well as between urban and rural areas; ...

f) prioritize efforts at teacher training and expand recruitment of qualified teachers, in particular women and persons from all ethnic groups;

g) introduce and fully implement targeted programmes for children from poor families and children from marginalized groups; ...

k) ratify the Convention against Discrimination in Education (1960) and the Convention on Technical and Vocational Education (1989)....

“... the Committee is concerned about: ...

d) the restrictions on Bhutanese refugees on their freedom of movement, as well as their enjoyment of the right to health and education.

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) seek to ensure, as a matter of priority, that all internally displaced, refugee and asylum-seeking children and their families have access to health and education services, and that all their rights contained in the Convention are protected, including the right to be registered at birth....”

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Netherlands

(26 February 2004, CRC/C/15/Add.227, Concluding observations on second report of Netherlands and initial report of Aruba, paras. 30, 31, 32, 45, 46, 51, 52, 53 and 54)

“... the Committee is concerned that societal prejudices and discrimination persist in society, in particular, against children of ethnic minorities and refugee and asylum-seeking children, and that in some localities and schools in the Netherlands there is de facto segregation between ethnically Dutch families and families of foreign origin....

“... The Committee requests the State party to pay particular attention to eliminating negative stereotype of refugee and asylum-seeking children in the Netherlands and to address the root causes of de facto segregation in schools and localities. It further recommends that the State party ensure that children of migrant families in Aruba have equal access to education, health and other services and that there is legislation to protect children with disabilities against discrimination.

“The Committee requests that specific information be included, in the next periodic report, on the measures and programmes relevant to the Convention on the Rights of the Child undertaken by the State party to follow up on the Declaration and Programme of Action adopted at the 2001 World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, taking into account the Committee’s general comment No. 1 on article 29 (1) of the Convention (aims of education).

“The Committee welcomes the continuing efforts to integrate children with disabilities into the mainstream education system, in particular in the Netherlands. However, it is concerned that children with disabilities in the Netherlands spend a significant amount of time waiting to access services and programmes....

“In keeping with the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96 of 20 December 1993), the Committee recommends that the State party strengthen its efforts to integrate children with disabilities into mainstream education and everyday life by: ...

b) expanding education possibilities for children with disabilities in Aruba, including those with learning disabilities, at the secondary school level;

c) improving the physical accessibility of mainstream schools, leisure and recreational facilities, and other public buildings and spaces in Aruba....

“The Committee notes the information provided by the delegation that efforts will be strengthened in the Netherlands and Aruba to prevent and assist school dropouts and the intention to expand bilingual education (Papiemento and Dutch) to secondary schools in Aruba....

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

c) in Aruba, expedite the adoption of the National Ordinance on Compulsory Education and ensure that it is enforced, including for children of undocumented migrants;

d) in Aruba, ensure that sufficient teaching materials are available in Papiemento for primary and secondary students....

“... the Committee is concerned that children whose applications for refugee status have been rejected are detained in closed camps with limited possibilities for education and leisure activities....

“The Committee recommends that the State party in the Netherlands: ...

d) ensure that the detention of children whose applications for refugee status have been rejected is used only as a measure of last resort, and that all children awaiting expulsion receive adequate education and housing.”

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Netherlands (including Aruba and Netherlands Antilles)

(30 January 2009, CRC/C/NLD/CO/3 Unedited version, Concluding observations on third report of the Netherlands, paras. 50, 61, 62, 65 and 66)

“In the light of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96), article 23 of the Convention and the Committee’s General Comment No. 9 (2006) on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/GC/9), the Committee recommends that the State party: ...

d) provide training for professional staff working with children with disabilities, such as medical, paramedical and related personnel, teachers and social workers; and

e) ratify the International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol, signed on 30 March 2007.

“The Committee takes note with appreciation of the quality of the educational system in the Netherlands. The Committee is aware of the attention the State party pays to the issues of de facto school segregation in cities .... However, the Committee is concerned that these issues have not yet been resolved satisfactorily.

“The Committee recommends that the State party: a) strengthen efforts to overcome the de facto ethnic segregation of school attendance by providing support for ethnically diverse schools and networks of cooperation among schools; ....

“The Committee welcomes the draft National Ordinance on Compulsory Education in Aruba. It is concerned, however, that education still is not compulsory, that while non-attendance and dropout rates have been lowered, these problems still exist, and that not all immigrant children attend school.

“The Committee recommends that the State party expeditiously make education compulsory in Aruba and strengthen its efforts to ensure that all children, including immigrant children, attend school.”

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New Zealand

(27 October 2003, CRC/C/15/Add.216, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 39, 40, 43 and 44)

“The Committee is concerned that children with disabilities are not fully integrated into all aspects of society and that services, in particular in the education system, are often difficult for families of children with disabilities to access.

“The Committee recommends that the State party ensure that adequate human and financial resources are allocated to implement the New Zealand Disability Strategy, in particular those aspects relating to the integration of children with disabilities into mainstream education and other aspects of society.

“The Committee welcomes the development of bilingual education for Maori; however, it notes with concern the persistent disparities in enrolment and dropout rates among children of different ethnic groups. The Committee is also concerned that the policy on exclusions, as well as increasing hidden costs of education are limiting access to education, particularly for Maori children, pregnant girls, children with special educational needs, lower-income families, non-citizens and new immigrants.

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) enforce legislation on compulsory education and prohibit exclusions on arbitrary grounds such as pregnancy, and ensure that students of the age of compulsory education who have legitimately been excluded from a school are enrolled elsewhere;

c) take effective measures to address disparities in enrolment and dropout rates between ethnic groups, including by strengthening programmes for bilingual education....”

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Nicaragua

(1 October 2010, CRC-C-NIC-CO-4 Concluding Observations: Nicaragua Paras. 37, 60, 61, 70 and 71.)

“The Committee urges the State party to strengthen efforts at combating racist and gender biased attitudes and behaviour, as well as those against children and adolescents who are indigenous, come from rural or remote areas or have disabilities. It further recommends that the State party place high priority in the public agenda to prevent and eradicate discrimination, inter alia, through the media and the educational system. The Committee would also like to draw the State Party’s attention to the principles of the Declaration and Programme of Action adopted at the 2001 World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, as well as the outcome document adopted at the 2009 Durban Review Conference.”

“While welcoming the appointment of a Special Ombudsperson for Persons with Disabilities and the principle of inclusive education contained in the Education Law which has resulted in doubling school enrolment of children with disabilities, the Committee is concerned at the deficiencies of the educational system, including training of teachers, to address this challenge, the weakness of early intervention and rehabilitation services, and that a high proportion of children with disabilities does not have access to public health services.”

“In the light of art. 23 of the Convention, the Committee’s General Comment No. 9 (2006) on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/GC/9) and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the Committee recommends that the State party:

      (a) Include family support mechanisms and aim awareness-raising efforts at the families and communities so they can help children with disabilities exercise their rights;
      (b) Ensure that the educational system is fully able to implement the policy of inclusive education, by providing the appropriate financial and technical resources and that all children with disabilities have access to education; and
      (c) Ensure that the health and social services have the capacity to prevent, detect and provide care to children with disabilities and, in doing so, support families and communities.”

“ While welcoming the Intercultural Bilingual Education policy, and that illiteracy has been remarkably reduced (from 22 percent in 2006 to 3.6 percent in 2009), more children attend school (having reduced the number of children out of school from one million to 500,000 since 2006) and fees for primary and middle education have been waived, the Committee is concerned that

      (a) Still about half a million children do not attend school, and regional disparities are very broad;
      (b) The dropout rates are high and the budget is not adequate to cover the reconstruction of a well equipped school infrastructure and the expansion needed to bring all children in school and make them stay longer;
      (c) The quality of the curricula is low and the training of teachers is inadequate;
      (d) There is violence and discrimination in schools;
      (e) Facilities for early childhood education and vocational education and training are not provided to the necessary extent; and
      (f) Almost half of all adolescents are outside the school system.”

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

      (a) Increase budget allocations in order to rehabilitate and to expand the educational system on all levels to make sure that all children have access to well equipped schools and teachers are adequately trained and paid;
      (b) Take measures to reduce and eliminate drop out and make more children stay in the educational system beyond the compulsory years of school;
      (c) Implement the Intercultural Bilingual Education policy;
      (d) Continue and enforce the revision of curricula, improve teacher training, introduce interactive forms of learning and provide a child-friendly environment in school;
      (e) Expand early childhood development programmes and facilities and in particular ensure the access of disadvantaged and poor children in need of developmental and educational incentives;
      (f) Close the gap between the end of compulsory school and the minimum age for access to employment by expansion of the compulsory years of education and the establishment of a vocational training system which prepares adolescent children for qualified work;
      (g) Expand human and child rights education to all levels of the education system; and
      (h) Take into account the Committee's general comment no. 1 (2001) on the aims of education.”

(21 September 2005, CRC/C/15/Add.265, Concluding observations on third report, paras. 46, 54 and 56)

“The Committee encourages the State party to actively pursue its current efforts and to continue to:

a) ensure that policies and practice in relation to children with disabilities take due regard of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities and of the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on “Children with disabilities” (see CRC/C/69);

b) pursue efforts to ensure that children with disabilities may exercise their right to education to the maximum extent possible and facilitate inclusion in the mainstream education system....

“The Committee is concerned about: ...

b) socio-economic and regional disparities - e.g. between urban and rural areas and between the Central/Pacific and Caribbean/Atlantic regions - in the access and enjoyment of the right to education, including lack of facilities in isolated and remote areas....

“The Committee encourages the State party to:

a) increase the efforts to eliminate any discrepancy in access to education between urban and rural areas and between the Central/Pacific and Caribbean/Atlantic regions....”

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Niger

(12 June 2009, Advance unedited version, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 27, 53, 54, 66 and 67)

“The Committee welcomes all the efforts made by the Government in promoting girls’ education and in particular the awareness-raising campaigns carried out with the support of traditional and religious chiefs in the regions where girls’ enrolment is particularly low....

“The Committee notes with satisfaction ... the adoption of a National Strategy for specialized education. The Committee remains however concerned at the persisting societal discrimination against children with disabilities and at the lack of appropriate legislation to protect their rights....

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) take into account the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, article 23 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Committee’s General Comment No. 9 on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/GC/9, 2006); ...

d) take all necessary measures to ensure the implementation of the 2005 Strategy for Specialized Education which aim is to promote education for children with special educational needs; ...

f) provide training for professional staff working with children with disabilities, such as teachers, social workers, medical, paramedical and related personnel.

“The Committee commends the major efforts of the State party to expand access to primary education as well as the increase in girl’s access to education.... The Committee is however concerned ... [at] the still weak gender equity in education....

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) address disparities more effectively by allocating specific budget and long term support targeting the most deprived children, namely girls in especially poor rural areas; ...

f) increase access to early childhood education, to all regions of the State party; ...

j) take into account its general comment No. 1 (CRC/GC/2001/1) on the aims of education.”

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Nigeria

(11 June 2010, Concluding observations: Nigeria Paras. 12, 29, 56, 57, 71, 72, 77, 78 and 81 )

“The Committee welcomes the adoption, in line with the Committee’s earlier recommendations (CRC/C/15/Add.257, para. 18), of the National Plan of Action on CRC/CRA 2009-2015 which “puts children first as a state policy” and which emphasizes health, education, and protection of children. While noting with appreciation that the State party is taking steps to implement and provide resources for the Action Plan, it is concerned that a results-oriented, gender-sensitive and evidence-based cost plan for the operationalization of the Action Plan remains a challenge.”

“… The State party is encouraged to consider affirmative action programmes to ensure girls effective access to education and prevent early school drop-out, including by reinforcing existing programmes such as the Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) Gender Education Project.”

“… While further noting information on special education facilities for children with disabilities, the Committee is concerned at the regional disparities in the availability of such facilities. The Committee is furthermore concerned at the lack of information on follow-up on its previous recommendations relating to children with disabilities (CRC/C/15/Add.257, paras. 46-47), in particular that no comprehensive policy on children with disabilities has been developed.”

“… The Committee strongly recommends the State party to: …

      (b) Continue its efforts to ensure access to education and health services for all children with disabilities in all states and to address existing geographical disparities with respect to available social services.”

“The Committee notes with appreciation steps taken by the State party to implement its free Universal Basic Education Programme (1999) and measures to improve quality of education, including a gender review of the curricula. It also welcomes the increased budgetary allocations for the education sector, the increase in primary school enrolment, and the improvement of infrastructure. The Committee notes the adoption of the Vocational Educational Initiative and the development of special vocational training programmes to assist children from low socio-economic status and for children from other vulnerable groups. It also notes with appreciation the ongoing process of integrating religious schools into the formal school system and for providing them with trained maalams (teachers). The Committee remains seriously concerned however about:

      (i) The high percentage of the primary school age population that is not enrolled in schools;
      (ii) The very low national primary school completion rate and the low net secondary school enrolment rate;
      (iii) Persisting wide geographical disparities in terms of enrolment rates and educational facilities;
      (iv) Persisting gender inequalities in enrolment and retention rates in the northern states;
      (v) The existence of fees and the absence of the right to free and compulsory education in the Constitution and at information that parents who refuse to enroll their children in schools are subject to sanctions;
      (vi) The inadequate and inaccessibility of vocational training programmes for many children, including children in conflict with the law.”

“The Committee urges the State party, taking into account its general comment no. 1 (2001) on the aims of education, to:

      (a) Ensure that primary education is effectively free and compulsory for all children without discrimination, including by abolishing school fees;
      (b) Ensure that the right to free and compulsory education is incorporated in the Constitution within the context of the constitutional review;
      (c) Continue to increase public expenditure for education, in particular primary education, with specific attention to addressing gender and regional disparities in the enjoyment of the right to education, and to enhance quality of education, including by ensuring that parents are not required to bear any financial burden for education and learning materials;
      (d) Continue to strengthen its efforts to integrate religious learning institutions, including the alamajiri schools, into the formal school system and to provide teachers education to maalams;
      (e) Promote pre-school education for children and make special attempts to include children from vulnerable and school-distant groups at early ages;
      (f) Take effective measures to ensure equal access to secondary education, especially in rural areas and in the north-western and north-eastern regions of the State party, by promoting enrolment of girls;
    (
      (g) Continue and strengthen its efforts to ensure accessible and available vocational training opportunities for all children, with a priority to children from vulnerable groups.”

“The Committee is concerned at the lack of information in the State party’s report on minorities, particularly the Ogoni community (Niger Delta region). Furthermore, the Committee is concerned by discrimination against ethnic minorities and notes that provisions of the National Policy on Education conferring special status on the three major languages (Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba) may be interpreted as discriminatory. The Committee notes that no strategies have been developed to ensure appropriate curricula for minorities, which takes into account the right of children of minority groups to use and receive education in their own language.”

“The Committee urges the State to: …

      (b) Ensure that children of minority groups be given equal access to education and equal chances to develop qualifications through the introduction of appropriate and adequate curricula which recognises their right to use and receive education in their own language.”

“The Committee urges the State party to implement its programs to provide education for children in the Niger Delta …”

(13 April 2005, CRC/C/15/Add.257, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 46, 47, 61, 62 and 64)

“... The Committee is particularly concerned at the limited number of trained teachers and professionals working with children with disabilities, as well as the insufficient efforts made to facilitate their inclusion in the education system and the society in general.

“In the light of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339), the Committee recommends that the State party:

a) undertake a comprehensive study to assess the situation of children with disabilities in terms of their access to suitable health care, education services and employment opportunities; ...

d) encourage the integration of children with disabilities into the regular educational system and their inclusion into society, inter alia by giving more attention to special training for teachers and making the physical environment, including schools, sports and leisure facilities and all other public areas, accessible for children with disabilities; ...

f) seek technical cooperation for the training of professional staff, including teachers, working with and for children with disabilities from, among others, UNICEF and WHO.

“The Committee ... notes with appreciation the initiatives of some State Governments to facilitate children’s access to education and to increase school enrolment, including the school meal plus programme and the development of the Strategy for Acceleration of Girls’ Education in Nigeria (SAGEN). ... However, in the light of the Committee’s general comment No. 1 on article 29 (1) of the Convention (aims of education), the Committee remains concerned about the various numbers of problems in the State party’s education system, including: ...

b) high illiteracy, particularly among girls and women; ...

d) gender and regional disparities in school enrolment; ...

f) mandatory requirement by law in some states of segregation of boys and girls in schools; and

g) segregation of refugees and displaced children in separate schools from other children.

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) prioritize equal accessibility to educational opportunities for girls and boys from urban and rural areas; ...

g) ensure that children who drop out of school and pregnant teenagers are provided with the opportunity to resume their studies; ...

i) ensure that refugee and asylum-seeking children are placed in schools in the local community, to facilitate their integration;

j) increase availability of vocational training programmes for young people, in particular, for girls, with the view to facilitate their access to the labour market, and in this connection, ratify the 1989 UNESCO Convention on Technical and Vocational Education....

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) seek to ensure, as a matter of priority, that all displaced and refugee children and their families have access to health and education services, and that all their rights contained in the Convention are protected, including the right to be registered at birth....”

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Norway

(29 January 2010, CRC/C/NOR/CO/4 Advance Unedited Version, Concluding observations on fourth report, paras. 48, 49, 60 and 61)

“The Committee takes note of the State party’s policy to achieve young children’s full attendance of a kindergarten of high quality, but is concerned that children with immigrant backgrounds are underrepresented despite an earmarked grant for the inclusion of newly arrived young refugee children. The Committee is further concerned that a number of municipalities do not follow the new curricula in basic Norwegian and mother tongue, which has a negative impact on the whole school career of children....

“The Committee ... recommends that the State party urgently advise municipalities to introduce the new language curricula in their schools so that children can better follow class instruction and that it take measures to ensure that children complete their schooling, with a particular focus on groups that traditionally do not have a good completion rates....

“The Committee welcomes efforts by the State party to ensure the rights of minority and indigenous children....

“The Committee recommends that the State party make every effort to ensure that children from ethnic minority backgrounds and indigenous children have equal access to all children’s rights, including access to welfare, health services and schools....”

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(21 September 2005, CRC/C/15/Add.263, Concluding observations on third report, para. 18)

“Despite the ongoing measures of the State party in this area, the Committee is concerned about the discrimination faced by some children in schools and society on the basis of their religious or ethnic backgrounds.”

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O

Oman

(29 September 2006, CRC/C/OMN/CO/2, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 24, 25, 26, 43, 44, 55 and 56)

“While noting that the Basic Law of the State and other domestic laws are based on the principle of non-discrimination and that the State party has taken measures to promote the principle of equality between women and men, particularly in the domain of civil and labour laws, the Committee is concerned about the weak implementation of these laws and the persisting de facto discrimination against women and girls in Omani society. Despite the ongoing efforts of the State party to provide equal opportunities for children with disabilities, including through community-based support and services, the Committee notes that the traditional charity-based welfare approach to address the issue of children with disabilities still prevails.... As regards the high number of children of migrant workers in Oman, the Committee is concerned about discrimination on the basis of national origin in terms [of] social benefits, health, education and housing.

“The Committee recommends that the State party, by effectively implementing the existing laws which guarantee the principle of non-discrimination, make greater efforts to ensure that all children within its jurisdiction enjoy all the rights enshrined in the Convention without discrimination, in accordance with article 2 of the Convention. The Committee recommends that the State party adopt a proactive and comprehensive strategy to eliminate de facto discrimination on any grounds and against all children, paying particular attention to girls, children with disabilities, children born out of wedlock and children of migrant workers, and prioritize social and health services and equal opportunities to education and recreational activities for children belonging to the most vulnerable groups. The Committee also encourages the State party to create a supportive gender sensitive environment which promotes the equal rights of girls to participate in the family, at school, within other institutions, in local communities and in society in general.

“The Committee requests that specific information be included in the next periodic report on the measures and programmes relevant to the Convention undertaken by the State party to follow up the Durban Declaration and Programme of Action adopted at the 2001 World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, and taking into account the Committee’s general comment No. 1 (2001) on the aims of education (art. 29(1)).

“... The Committee ... notes with concern that the service provision for children with disabilities is limited and not yet standardized and that a very limited number of children with disabilities is included in the mainstream education.

“The Committee recommends that, taking into account the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the recommendations adopted by the Committee on its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities held on 6 October 1997 (CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339), the State party: ...

d) provide all children with disabilities with access to adequate social and health services, including community-based support and services, inclusive quality education, the physical environment, information and communication, and continue its efforts to standardize the service provision.

“While noting with appreciation that the State party provides free primary school education for all children, including non-citizen children, the Committee reiterates its concern that primary education is not yet made compulsory by law. The Committee notes as a positive factor that girls and boys have equal enrolment in primary education but it regrets that not all children are enrolled in school and that not all enrolled children complete a full course of primary education....

“In the light of articles 28 and 29 of the Convention and taking into account the Committee’s general comment No. 1 (2001) on the aims of education, the Committee recommends that the State party continue to allocate adequate financial, human and technical resources in order to:

a) ensure that primary education is made compulsory by law and that all children are enrolled in school....”

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P

Pakistan

(15 October 2009, CRC/C/PAK/CO/3-4, Concluding observations on third/fourth report, paras. 28, 29, 58, 59, 78, 79, 82, 83, 84 and 85)

“The Committee remains extremely concerned at the evidence of serious discrimination against women and girls in the State party, as attested by the acute gender differentials in infant mortality rates and school enrolment rates.... The Committee regrets that despite similar concerns expressed by the Committee in its previous concluding observations (CRC/C/15/Add.217) and by the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW/C/PAK/CO/3) in 2007, there seems to be little or no improvement in the country.

“The Committee strongly recommends that concrete measures be taken to address and reduce the serious gender disparities and discrimination against women and girls prevailing throughout the State party. In particular, the Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) revise the cash transfer programmes, notably the Benazir Income Support Programme, to ensure that it clearly spells out the conditionalities for cash transfers regarding school enrolment of girls, women attending prenatal and post-natal clinics and others;

c) adopt affirmative actions to overcome deeply rooted traditions which prioritize boys’ education and support and to encourage families to invest in girls’ education, including through scholarships, transportation and conditional cash transfers....

“The Committee notes that the traditional charity-based welfare approach to addressing the needs of children with disabilities prevails. It acknowledges that the Pakistani National Plan of Action for Children 2006 covers children with disabilities and welcomes the pilot project for integrated education of children with disabilities involving 14 schools in the country, although its scope is still limited. The Committee is concerned about the very limited basic services supporting children with disabilities and at their limited access to education....

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) improve the physical access of children with disabilities to public service buildings, including schools and recreational infrastructures;

c) strengthen efforts to ensure an inclusive education and to increase the school attendance of children with special needs and focus on day-care services for these children in order to prevent their institutionalization; ...

f) consider ratifying the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol; ...

h) take into account article 23 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the Committee’s general comment No. 9 (2006) on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/GC/9), as well as the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96).

“The Committee welcomes the National Plan of Action on Education for All (2001–2015), the Education Sector Reforms Action Plan (2002–2006) aimed at providing adequate facilities to Government schools and quality education, as well as the efforts made to increase enrolment and reduce gender disparities and dropout rates. It regrets, however, that the results of these efforts have been unsatisfactory and remains concerned that: ...

c) the net enrolment rate in primary education remains unacceptably low at 73 per cent for boys and 57 per cent for girls in 2006; gender, regional and urban-rural disparities remain very high and enrolment in primary education is limited to children up to 10 years old....

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) set up clear implementation plans for achieving universal free primary education by 2015 by raising the age of compulsory education to the minimum age for admission to employment, ... giving special attention to the enrolment of all girls and children affected by the armed conflict, including internally displaced and refugee children;

c) reduce the number of children dropping out of school by, inter alia, ... highlighting the value of girls’ education; ...

“... The Committee remains concerned, however, at the harsh living conditions in refugee camps, where a large number of children live, and at the lack of access to health services, education and basic services such as water and sanitation.…

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

b) ... ensure that refugee children have access to basic services without discrimination, including health care and education....

“... The Committee notes with concern that internally displaced children in the State party are facing serious socio-economic deprivation, especially limited access to shelter, sanitation, health care and education....

“The Committee recommends that the State party, with the assistance of the United Nations and NGOs: ...

c) ensure that displaced children are provided with shelter, nutrition, sanitation, health care and education, as well as with physical and psychological recovery, and pay special attention to particularly vulnerable groups, especially unaccompanied and separated children, children with disabilities, and children suffering from malnutrition and diseases.”

(27 October 2003, CRC/C/15/Add.217, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 29, 31, 50, 51, 60, 63 and 66)

“While acknowledging the actions taken to address discrimination against girls in education, the Committee is concerned at the persistence of discriminatory social attitudes and discrimination against minority children and against girls, early and forced marriages, low school enrolment and high dropout rates, honour killings, mutilation and violence....

“The Committee requests that specific information be included in the next periodic report on the measures and programmes relevant to the Convention on the Rights of the Child undertaken by the State party to follow up on the Declaration and Programme of Action adopted at the 2001 World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance and taking account of general comment No. 1 on article 29, paragraph 1, of the Convention (aims of education).

“While being aware of the 49 special education centres and disabled-friendly cities initiatives, the Committee remains concerned at the limited integration of children with disabilities in schools, social events and cultural activities and at the low level of support received by these children and their families.

“In light of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96, annex) and of the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339), the Committee recommends that the State party continue and strengthen its efforts to integrate children with disabilities into education and recreational programmes currently used by children without disabilities, notably through the improvement of the physical access of children with disabilities to public service buildings, including schools.

“The Committee welcomes the measures taken to increase the attendance of girls at schools and the information that a national “Compulsory Primary Education Ordinance” has been promulgated (March 2002), and also notes the modest improvement in the gross primary enrolment rate. However, the Committee remains deeply concerned that: ...

e) gender and geographical disparities remain very high....

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

d) continue and strengthen its efforts to ensure that all children have equal access to educational opportunities, with a view to eliminating the prevailing disparities between girls and boys as well as between urban and rural areas....

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

c) ensure that refugee children have access to health care and education and are not discriminated against....”

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Panama

(30 June 2004, CRC/C/15/Add.233, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 23, 41, 42, 51, 52, 54, 63 and 64)

“The Committee is deeply concerned about the long-existing and grave disparities, inter alia, in the standard of living, access to basic social services like education, health, clean (drinkable) water and sanitation, and between different groups of the population, in particular those living in urban and rural areas. These hamper the enjoyment of rights, in particular by children in rural areas and indigenous children.

“The Committee welcomes the establishment of the National Council for Comprehensive Care of Disabled Minors and the executive decree establishing regulations for the inclusive education of individuals with special education needs. But it expresses concern about the lack of detailed statistical information, and that the children with disabilities living in indigenous rural areas do not have adequate access to services such as health and education. The Committee is also concerned at the lack of information on the integration of children with disabilities in different sectors such as education, sports and socio-cultural activities.

“The Committee recommends that the State party, taking into account the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the recommendations adopted by the Committee at its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (see CRC/C/69), ensure adequate collection of statistical information, pay special attention to children with disabilities in rural and indigenous areas and take all necessary measures to integrate children with disabilities in mainstream schools, social/cultural activities and sports.

“While noting the State party’s efforts to improve the educational system and noting with satisfaction the improvements mirrored in education indicators, the Committee remains concerned at the persisting disparities in access to education of vulnerable children, inter alia, children living in rural areas, indigenous children and refugee children, who do not have access to adequate education in terms of their cultural values and identity....

“The Committee recommends that the State party allocate financial and human resources in order: ...

c) to pay special attention to the needs of vulnerable children, e.g. girls, indigenous and refugee children, working and street children, in order to fulfil their basic right to education....

“The Committee reiterates its recommendation that the State party ensure adequate protection of refugee children, including in the fields of education, health and social services, and cooperate in a constructive and effective manner with UNHCR in this regard.

“The Committee, acknowledging the adoption of the new legislation creating three indigenous comarcas, remains concerned that lack of economic resources is an obstacle to developing specific programmes on education, health and social services for indigenous children. The Committee is also concerned about the preservation of the identity of indigenous children since bilingual education remains a challenge in indigenous areas and education lacks resources of all kinds.

“The Committee recommends that the State party take all necessary measures to ensure that indigenous children enjoy all their rights without discrimination, including equal access to culturally appropriate services including health, education, social services, housing, potable water and sanitation. The Committee also recommends that the State party, with the full participation of indigenous communities and children, develop public awareness campaigns, including through the mass media, to combat negative attitudes and misperceptions about indigenous children. The Committee also recommends that the State party pay particular attention to guarantee the preservation of the identity of indigenous and Afro-Panamanian children, e.g. by the implementation of the national plan to develop bilingual intercultural education.”

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Papua New Guinea

(26 February 2004, CRC/C/15/Add.229, Concluding observations on initial report, paras. 45, 46, 53 and 54)

“The Committee is concerned ... that children with disabilities, in particular those in remote rural areas, have no access to social services, including rehabilitation and educational facilities.

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) formulate a strategy that includes appropriate teacher training to ensure that all children with disabilities have access to education, and, wherever possible, are integrated into the mainstream education system in the light of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on ‘The rights of children with disabilities’ (CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339).

“The Committee ... is concerned that enrolment, literacy and retention rates are still low, particularly in primary education, and that there is a significant disparity between the number of boys and girls in school....

“The Committee recommends that the State party continue to strengthen its efforts to complete the reform of its national education system and in particular to strengthen measures aimed at increasing enrolment and retention rates in primary and basic education, in particular for girls....”

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Paraguay

“The Committee, in line with article 2 of the Convention, strongly recommends that the State party: ...

c) effectively guarantee the indigenous childrens’ services for health, nutrition, education, access to employment and cultural activities.

“The Committee welcomes different initiatives and efforts carried to ensure the rights of children with disabilities in the State party, including the ratification of the CRPD. Nevertheless, the Committee ... regrets that children with disabilities still continue to experience discrimination, that teachers are not properly trained to assist their needs and that there is a lack of collection of data concerning children with disabilities.

“The Committee recommends that the State party continue the measures to protect and promote the rights of children with disabilities, by taking into account the General Comment No. 9 (2006) (CRC/C/GC/9), on the rights of children with disabilities, art. 23 of the Convention, the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities as well as the Inter-American Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against persons with disabilities:

a) developing a policy and adopting a specific Plan of Action to provide health care, comprehensive education and protection to children and adolescents with disabilities; ...

“... The Committee is further concerned at the difficulties for indigenous children to access education and at the insufficient measures to reflect the multilingual nature of the population. The Committee also takes note of the increase of early childhood education in the years before school, although it is concerned at the insufficient preschools and at the limited access of rural and indigenous children....

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

c) reinforce of [sic] the multilingual nature of the population (Guarani-Spanish and others) and adapt the education methodologies and materials to this reality;

d) improve the quality of teacher training, particularly with regard to inter-cultural and bilingual education; ...

f) increase efforts for rural and indigenous children to access education, particularly to early childhood education....

“The Committee is concerned at the limited enjoyment of rights by indigenous children, in particular their limited access to education....

“The Committee recommends that the State party take all necessary measures to protect the rights of indigenous children against discrimination and to guarantee their enjoyment of the rights enshrined in domestic law and in the Convention. In this regard, the Committee refers the State party to its general comment no. 11 on Indigenous Children and their rights under the Convention (CRC/C/GC/11) and to the recommendations issued by the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights and fundamental freedoms of indigenous people, contained in his report A/HRC/11/11.”

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Peru

(14 March 2006, CRC/C/PER/CO/3, Concluding observations on third report, paras. 45, 60, 61 and 73)

“The Committee encourages the State party to pursue actively its current efforts and to continue to:

a) ensure that policies and practice in relation to children with disabilities take due regard of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and of the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on “Children with disabilities” (see CRC/C/69);

b) pursue efforts to ensure that children with disabilities enjoy full integration, including mainstream education, and participation in social, cultural and sport activities....

“The Committee ... is still concerned about: ...

c) the lack of adequate training of teachers, including skills for intercultural bilingual education to indigenous communities; ...

e) the even higher non-attendance and earlier drop-out of girls because of traditional views and partly due to early pregnancies and maternity;

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

e) improve intercultural bilingual education....

“The Committee, while acknowledging the State party’s efforts in this respect, notes with concern that indigenous communities continue to face serious difficulties in the enjoyment of their rights, especially economic, social and cultural rights. In particular, the Committee is concerned about the lack of recognition of their land rights, pillaging of their resources, inadequate access to basic services, health and education, social exclusion and discrimination.”

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Philippines

(2 October 2009, CRC/C/PHL/CO/3-4 Advance Unedited Version, Concluding observations on third/fourth report, paras. 29, 53, 54, 65, 66, 83 and 84)

“While noting efforts by the State party to eliminate discrimination against children, including through the implementation of the Girl Child Plan and a number of programmes targeting indigenous and minority children, the Committee reiterates its concern at discrimination faced by many children, in particular children living in poverty, children with disabilities, indigenous and minority children, including Muslim children living in Mindanao, migrant children, street children and children living in rural areas as well as children living in conflict areas, as regards their access, inter alia, to social and health services and education....

“While welcoming the State party’s ratification of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in 2008, the Committee expresses its concern at the lack of a comprehensive policy to ensure that children with disabilities have equal access to social, educational, health and other services....

“The Committee recommends that the State party strengthen its measures to protect and promote the rights of children with disabilities, inter alia, by:

a) developing and implementing a comprehensive policy for the protection and promotion of the rights of children with disabilities and enforcing existing legislation to ensure that children with disabilities have equal access to social, educational, health and other services; ...

f) providing training for professional staff working with children with disabilities, such as teachers, social workers, medical, paramedical and related personnel; and

g) taking into account article 23 of the Convention, the Committee’s General Comment No. 9 (CRC/C/GC/9) as well as the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

“... The Committee also remains concerned that certain vulnerable groups of children, such as children living in poverty, children with disabilities, working children, children in armed conflict, indigenous children, children infected with, or affected by, HIV/AIDS, and street children do not have equal access to education....

“In light of articles 28 and 29 of the Convention and the Committee’s general comment No. 1 (2001) on the aims of education, the Committee urges the State party to allocate the necessary financial, human and technical resources in order to: ...

b) urgently take all necessary measures to ensure that primary education is universal, free of direct or indirect costs and accessible for all children and pay particular attention to the schooling opportunities in the most remote barangays and to the educational needs of children belonging to vulnerable groups, in order to fulfil their right to education....

“While acknowledging steps taken to address the precarious situation of indigenous children, such as the inclusion for the first time of indigenous people’s concerns in the Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan 2004-2010 (MTPDP), the Committee reiterates its concern at the widespread poverty among minorities and indigenous peoples and the limited enjoyment of their human rights, in particular, concerning their access to social and health services and education....

“Taking into account its general comment No. 11 on indigenous children and their rights under the Convention (CRC/C/GC/11), the Committee recommends that the State party take the necessary steps to ensure that indigenous children and children belonging to minorities fully enjoy all of their human rights equally and without discrimination. In this respect, the Committee recommends that the State party strengthen its efforts to implement the IPRA and develop and implement policies and programmes in order to ensure equal access for indigenous and minority children to culturally appropriate services, including social and health services and education. The Committee ... recommends that the State party raise awareness in communities and schools of the multicultural nature of the Filipino society and the need for education to be sensitive to traditions, languages and views by different ethnic groups.”

(21 September 2005, CRC/C/15/Add.259, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 20, 22, 55, 56, 68, 69, 70, 92 and 93)

“Notwithstanding the measures taken by the State party to eliminate discrimination against children, inter alia, through the implementation of the provisions of the Child and Youth Welfare Code (Presidential Decree No. 603), the Family Code and the Special Protection of Children against Child Abuse, Exploitation and Discrimination Act and several programmes, such as the Third Elementary Education Programme, the Committee is concerned about discrimination faced by many children, in particular children living in poverty, children with disabilities, indigenous and minority children, including Muslim children living in Mindanao, migrant children, street children and children living in rural areas as well as children living in areas of conflict, as regards their access, inter alia, to social and health services and education....

“The Committee requests that specific information be included in the next periodic report on the measures and programmes relevant to the Convention on the Rights of the Child undertaken by the State party to follow up on the Durban Declaration and Programme of Action adopted at the World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance and taking account of the Committee’s general comment No. 1 (2001) on the aims of education.

“... The Committee is concerned that many children with disabilities live in poverty and their access to social and health services and education is limited....

“In the light of the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the recommendations adopted by the Committee on its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (see CRC/C/69), the Committee recommends that the State party take all necessary measures to: ...

c) ensure that public education policy and school curricula reflect in all their aspects the principle of full participation and equality and include children with disabilities in the mainstream school system to the extent possible and, where necessary, establish special education programmes tailored to their special needs; ...

f) ensure that professionals working with and for children with disabilities, such as medical, paramedical and related personnel, teachers and social workers are adequately trained....

“... the Committee remains gravely concerned that there still remain barangays which are not able to provide children with elementary education and there are several vulnerable groups of children, such as children living in poverty, children with disabilities, child labourers, children in armed conflict, indigenous children, children infected with, or affected by, HIV/AIDS and street children, without equal access to elementary education....

“The Committee is encouraged by the State party’s efforts to promote indigenous, minority and local languages in education including, inter alia, through the Lingua Franca Project. The Committee ... reiterates its concern about the low rate of enrolment in secondary education and that children living in the remote barangays have very limited access to secondary education....

“In the light of articles 28 and 29 of the Convention and the Committee’s general comment No. 1 (2001) on the aims of education, the Committee recommends that the State party allocate adequate financial, human and technical resources in order to: ...

b) urgently take all necessary measures to ensure universal and free primary education for all and pay particular attention to the schooling opportunities in the most remote barangays and to the educational needs of children belonging to vulnerable groups, such as children living in poverty, children with disabilities, indigenous children, child labourers, children in armed conflict, children infected with or affected by HIV/AIDS and street children, in order to fulfil their right to education; ...

f) provide indigenous children and children belonging to minority groups with equal access to quality education which respects their distinct cultural patterns and uses local indigenous and minority languages in education through, inter alia, the Lingua Franca Project....

“While noting the provisions of the Indigenous Peoples Rights Act (Republic Act No. 8371) as well as programmes and projects for children belonging to minorities and indigenous peoples, such as an alternative system of education for children belonging to indigenous cultural communities, the Childcare Development Programme and the Lingua Franca Project, the Committee is concerned about the widespread poverty among minorities and indigenous peoples and the limited enjoyment of their human rights, in particular, concerning their access to social and health services and education....

“The Committee recalls the obligations of the State party under articles 2 and 30 of the Convention and recommends that the State party ensure that indigenous children and children belonging to minorities fully enjoy all of their human rights equally and without discrimination. In this respect the Committee recommends that the State party strengthen its efforts to implement the Indigenous Peoples Rights Act (Republic Act No. 8371) and develop and implement policies and programmes in order to ensure equal access for indigenous and minority children to culturally appropriate services, including social and health services and education....”

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Poland

(30 October 2002, CRC/C/15/Add.194, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 27, 40, 41, 44, 45, 46, 47, 52 and 53)

“The Committee notes with concern that the principle of non-discrimination is not adequately implemented with respect to certain vulnerable groups of children, including children of the Roma and other ethnic minorities, children living in institutions, children with disabilities, children of poor families and children with HIV/AIDS. In particular, the Committee is concerned about their limited access to adequate health, education and other social services and about reports of racially motivated violence in which police have failed to protect the victims.

“The Committee is concerned that children with disabilities do not all have the opportunity to attend integrated schools and education programmes, and that in some cases children with disabilities are institutionalized or do not attend school regularly owing to a lack of appropriate programmes close to their homes.

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) develop a time-bound plan for reducing the number of children with disabilities living in institutions and integrating them into mainstream education and vocational training programmes, as well as social, cultural and leisure activities;

b) provide sufficient financial, human and organizational resources to powiats to ensure that they all offer integrated educational facilities that are accessible and appropriate to children with disabilities that will ensure their full participation in society.

“The Committee notes the new initiatives to provide textbooks to children from poor families and provide all schools with computers, yet it remains concerned at the increasing disparities in access to education, the material condition of schools and the quality of education between rural and urban areas, particularly with regard to kindergartens and extracurricular programmes and activities.

“The Committee recommends that the State party ensure that children in rural areas have equal opportunities for a quality education which provides them with the skills to enter the labour market or university-level education based on their merit, by:

a) seeking innovative means for promoting the cognitive, social and emotional development of children, through, inter alia, programmes that foster interaction between children and their peers and parental education programmes on the benefits of early childhood education, ensuring that there are sufficient and appropriate kindergarten facilities for all children in rural areas; orienting the education system towards achieving the aims mentioned in article 29, paragraph 1, of the Convention and in the Committee's General Comment No. 1 on the aims of education; and introducing human rights, including children’s rights, into the school curricula;

b) ensuring that rural areas and poorer communities are provided with additional funds to allow them to provide the same quality of education and level of extracurricular programmes as urban schools;

c) ensuring that students from poor families or those in rural areas have access to scholarships or other forms of financial support that allow them to attend general secondary schools in preparation for university.

“The Committee ... is concerned that children waiting for their refugee claims to be processed do not have opportunities for education if they are housed in emergency blocks....

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

c) ensure that all children awaiting processing of their refugee claims in emergency blocks, the refugee reception centre or other forms of care have full access to education.

“The Committee is concerned that, despite pilot programmes aimed at improving the situation of the Roma in certain provinces, they still suffer from widespread discrimination which has in some instances impeded Romani children’s right to education, health and social welfare.

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) initiate campaigns at all levels and in all provinces aimed at addressing the negative attitudes towards the Roma in society at large and in particular amongst authorities and professionals providing health, education and other social services;

b) develop and implement a plan aimed at integrating all Roma children into mainstream education and prohibiting their segregation into special classes, and which includes pre-school programmes for Romani children to learn the primary language of schooling in their communities;

c) develop curriculum resources for all schools which include Romani history and culture in order to promote understanding, tolerance and respect of Roma in Polish society.”

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Q

Qatar

(14 October 2009, CRC/C/QAT/CO/2, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 50, 51, 56, 57, 60 and 61)

“The Committee commends the State party for the efforts made to ensure that the rights of children with disabilities are observed, particularly in the area of health and education including through the establishment of various institutions offering treatment, training, social and advisory services.... However, the Committee is of the view that access to quality education, health and leisure for children with disabilities needs further strengthening.

“In light of the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the Committee’s general comment No. 9 (2006) on the rights of children with disabilities, the Committee recommends that the State party: ...

c) provide all children with disabilities with access to adequate social and health services, quality education, physical environment, information and communication, and strengthen its efforts to standardize service provision.

“The Committee notes with appreciation that the State party provides free primary school education for all children, including non-citizen children.... However, the Committee is concerned that only boys can access the Qatar Leadership Academy.

“In the light of articles 28 and 29 of the Convention and taking into account the Committee’s general comment No. 1 (2001) on the aims of education, the Committee recommends that the State party: ...

d) consider opening the opportunity to girls to participate in the Qatar Leadership Academy.

“While noting that the State party allows the establishment of private schools run by expatriate communities, the Committee remains concerned that the children of migrant workers employed in the private sector may not always have access to public schools....

“The Committee recommends that the State party ensure access to public schools to all children, including to children of migrant workers employed in the private sector.... The Committee also recommends that the State party consider ratifying the Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families.”

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R

Republic of the Congo

(20 October 2006, CRC/C/COG/CO/1, Concluding observations on initial report, paras. 26, 56, 57, 68, 69, 73, 74, 88 and 89)

“... the Committee is concerned at the visible gender-based discrimination in education, clearly reflected in the ratio boys/girls in schools....

“... The Committee is also concerned that children with disabilities are not included in regular schools as much as possible.

“The Committee recommends that the State party, in accordance with the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities held on 6 October 1997 (CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339):

a) further encourage the inclusion of children with disabilities into the regular education system and their inclusion into society;

b) pay more attention to special training for teachers and make the physical environment, including schools, sports and leisure facilities and all other public areas, accessible for children with disabilities....

“... the Committee is concerned at the limited access of indigenous children to education.

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) ensure that primary education is free of direct and hidden costs and compulsory, and that all children are enrolled in mandatory school;

c) pay specific attention to disparities in access to schools based on sex, socio-economic, ethnic and regional grounds, and ensure all children’s full enjoyment of the right to education....

e) undertake additional efforts to ensure access to informal education to those children who dropped out of school before graduation, including indigenous children, street children, orphans, children with disabilities, and former child soldiers....

“In this respect, the Committee draws the attention of the State party to its general comment No. 1 (2001) on the aims of education....

“The Committee notes with satisfaction that the revised asylum policy in place has enhanced the protection of asylum-seeker and refugee children who are unaccompanied or separated from their parents. However, the Committee is concerned that access to education and health is not fully guaranteed for refugee children. The Committee is also concerned at reports of increased violence and discrimination against refugee children, especially from Rwanda, and at the fact that Rwandan children are not integrated in the regular education system.

“The Committee recommends that the State party ensure access to health and education to all refugee children in the country....

“... the Committee is concerned at the alarming situation of [indigenous populations], in particular indigenous children, who are victims of economic exploitation, systematic violence, including rape, and systematic discrimination, in particular with respect to access to health services, education and birth registration....

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

d) take affirmative measures to ensure that indigenous children gain de facto enjoyment of their rights, in particular in the area of health and education; and

e) take due account of the recommendations adopted by the Committee following its day of general discussion on the rights of indigenous children held in September 2003.”

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(January 2009, CRC/C/COD/CO/2 Unedited version, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 28, 52, 65, 66 and 75)

“The Committee notes with interest the measures taken to eliminate the disparity between education of girls and of boys, in particular through the acceleration strategy for education of girls (2003-2007). The Committee is nevertheless deeply concerned that certain groups of children face discrimination and marginalization, including children with disabilities .... The Committee also expresses its concern at the persisting societal discrimination against girls.

“In light of the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the Committee’s general comment No. 9 on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/GC/9, 2006), the Committee recommends that the State party: ...

e) provide training for professional staff working with children with disabilities, such as medical, paramedical and related personnel, teachers and social workers; and

f) consider signing and ratifying the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol.

“The Committee recognizes the Constitutional provision for free public primary education but notes with concern that, in reality, schooling costs remain relatively high. The Committee welcomes the ‘Initiative 25 pour 2005’, which aims to ensure gender parity in schools. However, the Committee notes with concern that, despite governmental efforts, school enrollment rates in primary and secondary schools are low, particularly for girls, children living in rural areas and children from vulnerable groups....

“The Committee recommends that the State party, taking into account its general comment No. 1 (CRC/GC/2001/1) on the aims of education: ...

c) continue its efforts to reduce gender disparities in access to and full enjoyment of the right to education; ...

g) promote early childhood education and take steps to provide access to such education for children in all regions....

“The Committee urges the State party, taking into account the Committee’s general comment No. 6 (2005) on the treatment of unaccompanied children and separated children outside their country of origin, to continue and strengthen its efforts in order to ensure that all refugees and displaced persons, particularly children, are provided with adequate and appropriate assistance, including food, medical and psychological care and access to education....”

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Republic of Korea

(18 March 2003, CRC/C/15/Add.197, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 50, 51, 52 and 53)

“The Committee is ... concerned at reports that a significant number of children with disabilities are abandoned each year, that many cannot attend school and when they do attend school they are segregated from other students.

“The Committee recommends that the State party, in accordance with the recommendations arising from the Committee’s day of general discussion, held in 1997, on children with disabilities, and the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96, annex): ...

b) undertake a comprehensive survey of the number of children with disabilities, including those currently not attending school, which assesses their educational needs and access to education and other social services;

c) expand existing programmes aimed at improving the physical access of children with disabilities to public buildings and areas, including schools and recreational facilities, and increase the number of integrated education programmes at pre-primary, primary, secondary and tertiary levels.

“The Committee is concerned that ... while there is no disparity in enrolment rates of girls and boys in primary education, significantly fewer girls than boys attend higher education....

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

c) take effective measures to ensure that higher education is accessible to all on the basis of capacity, by promoting the enrolment of girls and addressing persistent gender stereotypes....”

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(January 2009, CRC/C/PRK/CO/4 Unedited version, Concluding observations on third/fourth report, para. 43)

“The Committee recommends that the State party, taking into account the General Comment No. 9 (2006) on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/GC/9) and the Standard Rules for Equalizing the Possibilities for Persons with Disabilities, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 23 December 1993, continue to strengthen measures to protect and promote the rights of children with disabilities, by, inter alia: ...

d) pursuing efforts to ensure that children with disabilities may exercise their right to education to the maximum extent possible; ...

f) considering the ratification of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol.”

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Republic of Moldova

(31 October 2002, CRC/C/15/Add.192, Concluding observations on initial report, paras. 26, 37, 38, 41, 42, 49 and 50)

“The Committee is concerned that the principle of non-discrimination is not fully implemented for children living in institutions, children with disabilities, street children, children with HIV/AIDS, children of Roma origin and other ethnic minorities, especially with regard to their access to adequate health care and educational facilities.

“The Committee expresses its deep concern at the increasing number of children with disabilities and at the insufficient support provided to their families. It further notes that there are few efforts to integrate these children in mainstream education....

“In light of article 23 of the Convention, the Committee recommends that the State party: ...

f) in light of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96, annex) and the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339), further encourage their integration into the regular educational system and inclusion into society, including by providing special training to teachers and by making schools and public facilities accessible....

“The Committee notes with concern the declining expenditure on education, which affects in particular pre-school education, especially in rural areas....

“In light of articles 28 and 29 of the Convention, the Committee recommends that the State party:

a) develop a national strategy on education for all, and a clear plan of action, taking into account the Dakar Framework for Action....

“The Committee is concerned that, despite pilot programmes aimed at improving the situation of the Roma in certain provinces, they still suffer from widespread discrimination which has in some instances curtailed Romani children.s right to education, health and social welfare.

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) initiate campaigns at all levels and in all provinces aimed at addressing the negative attitudes towards the Roma in society at large and in particular amongst authorities and professionals providing health, education and other social services;

b) develop and implement a plan aimed at integrating all Roma children into mainstream education and prohibiting their segregation in special classes, and which would include pre-school programmes for Romani children to learn the primary language of schooling in their community;

c) develop curriculum resources for all schools which include Romani history and culture in order to promote understanding, tolerance and respect of the Roma community in Moldovan society.”

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(30 January 2009, CRC/C/MDA/CO/3 Unedited version, Concluding observations on third report, paras. 25, 50, 51, 62 and 63)

“The Committee is concerned that ... Roma children are still victims of discriminatory treatment and have reduced access to education, health and an adequate standard of living....

“The Committee notes the efforts of the State party aimed at assisting children with disabilities but is concerned at the persisting inadequacy of educational, social and health services for children with disabilities and their families in their own living environment. In particular, the Committee notes that there remain many hurdles to ensuring equal access to education for children with disabilities and that, due to the absence of modern approaches to special education and adequate special facilities in schools, many children with mental and physical disabilities are institutionalised or leave school altogether.

“The Committee recommends that the State party, in accordance with article 23 of the Convention and taking into account General Comment No. 9 (CRC/C/GC/9), continue to strengthen measures to protect and promote the rights of children with disabilities, inter alia by:

a) developing a comprehensive policy for the protection of children with disabilities and for their equal access to social, educational and other services; ...

c) pursuing efforts to ensure that children with disabilities, including moderate and severe developmental disabilities, are able to exercise their right to education to the maximum extent possible; ...

f) providing training for professional staff working with children with disabilities, such as teachers, social workers and health care workers;

g) ensuring the implementation of the Standard Rules for the Equalisation of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96); ...

i) considering the ratification of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol; ....

“The Committee is concerned that school enrolment rates of Roma children are lower than those of non-Roma children at all educational levels, that a significant proportion of Roma children do not attend primary school compared to non-Roma children and that only half of Roma children attend secondary school. The Committee is also concerned at the limited possibilities for instruction in the Roma language.

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) take measures to address ethnic disparities in accessing education;

b) develop and implement strategies and programmes to ensure access to mainstream education for Roma children;

c) ensure that appropriate safeguards are in place to guarantee the optimal enjoyment by Roma children of the right to education.”

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Romania

(12 June 2009, CRC/C/ROM/CO/4 Advance unedited version, Concluding observations on third/fourth report, paras. 60, 61, 76, 77, 95, 96, 97 and 98)

“... While noting the decrease in the number of children with disabilities in institutions, the Committee is concerned that: ...

c) many children are identified as mentally disabled and referred to schools for children with special needs, while they are often delayed developmentally or because of their social, emotional, or cognitive deprivation and are not disabled; ...

f) social stigmatization of children with disabilities persists and as a result some children are kept “hidden” in the home by their parents, which prevents them from receiving necessary services, including mainstream education, and from participating in social life....

“In the light of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96), the Committee’s general comment No. 9 (2006) on the rights of children with disabilities, and with particular reference to art. 23 of the Convention, the Committee recommends that the State party: ...

d) provide training for professional staff working with children with disabilities, such as medical, paramedical and related personnel, teachers and social workers; and

g) continue and complete its plans for ratifying the International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, and examine the possibility of ratifying its Optional Protocol....

“The Committee notes with appreciation the numerous efforts of the State party in the sphere of education, aiming to guarantee the objectives set out in the Convention, including the programmes to ... reduce the disadvantages in education affecting children living in rural areas.... However, the Committee is concerned that:

a) enrolment in primary school has decreased, the number of school drop-outs has increased significantly in recent years, affecting children from urban areas and disproportionately children of Roma origin; ...

c) despite measures taken, including the training and recruitment of school mediators, Roma children continue to have a significantly lower pre-school and primary school enrolment rate, many experience some form of school segregation, have lower school attendance rates, and may be wrongly enrolled in special schools as families cannot afford education-related costs;

d) despite some efforts, children with disabilities continue to experience discrimination in accessing mainstream education and the majority do not attend any form of education, while of those who do, the majority attend special schools;

e) nearly a third of children with mental disabilities do not have access to any form of education because most special schools do not accept children with severe mental disabilities; ...

g) the quality of education varies across communities with marked rural-urban disparities and in general is undermined by, inter alia, overloaded and inefficient curricula, school shifts and inadequate school infrastructure, including poor sanitation, condition of the buildings, and equipment, especially in segregated schools;

h) while kindergarten infrastructure is insufficient in responding to the needs of the overall population, pre-schools available to the Roma are mainly organised by NGOs; ...

j) many children with disabilities in institutions are not offered solutions for re-integration into the community which may lead to their automatic transfer to residential care institutions for adults.

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) invest considerable additional resources in order to ensure the right of all children to a truly inclusive education; ...

d) involve Roma parents and communities in the development of educational curricula appropriate for and sensitive to the Roma culture and customs, provide material assistance adjusted to children’s conditions of living and respect the children’s language and culture in the interactive learning processes and social life in school;

e) introduce intercultural education and education for tolerance at all levels of the education system; ...

g) enhance and improve the accessibility of kindergarten and pre-school education for Roma and deprived children, in order to prepare them for school and provide opportunities to engage in play and sports;

h) raise awareness among school directors about the legal provisions banning school segregation adopted in July 2007;

i) develop a formal system for providing alternative, community based pre-school opportunities for rural children.

“The Committee notes that article 118 of the Law on Education recognizes the right of persons belonging to national minorities to receive education in their mother tongue, and that the State party has ensured in practice that education conducted completely or partially in their mother tongue, or the study of their mother tongue, is available to children belonging to a number of minorities, including the Roma. However, the Committee notes that despite efforts to improve the situation, there may be too few opportunities to use their mother tongue and culture for all minorities with special attention to the Roma....

“The Committee recommends that the State Party ensures that its policies, measures and instruments apply without discrimination and aim to protect the rights of children belonging to all minorities, including Roma, and their rights under the Convention.

“As regards children of Roma minority, the Committee notes that schools and other institutions do not take into account the cultural and other needs of Roma children....

“The Committee in particular recommends that the State party:

a) develop comprehensive policy frameworks for the delivery of sustainable services to address the complex situation of Roma children and Roma families, including ... education ...

c) strengthen its efforts to remove discrimination and to continue developing and implementing - in close collaboration with the Roma community itself - policies and programmes aimed at ensuring equal access to culturally appropriate services, including ... education....”

(18 March 2003, CRC/C/15/Add.199, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 48, 49, 52, 54, 55, 64 and 65)

“The Committee is concerned that disabled children in Romania remain disadvantaged in the enjoyment of their rights guaranteed by the Convention. The Committee is concerned, among other things, that:

a) children with disabilities often have serious difficulty in obtaining transportation and in gaining access to public buildings, including hospitals and schools;

b) despite the efforts of the State party to promote inclusion, disabled children in practice have limited access to formal education....

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) review existing policies and practice in relation to children with disabilities, taking due account of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96, annex) and of the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on the theme “The rights of children with disabilities” (CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339); ...

c) undertake greater efforts for inclusive education of children with all forms of disability and seek greater involvement of local communities in the process;

d) improve the physical accessibility of schools, and other public buildings....

“The Committee ... is concerned that:

a) the number of children from rural areas and the percentage of girls dropping out of school are disproportionately high; ...

d) children belonging to certain categories do not benefit from equal opportunities as concerns education (i.e. children from less favoured families, children with disabilities, children affected by HIV/AIDS, children living in the streets and the Roma and refugee children).

“The Committee notes:

a) that the legislation (Law 48/2002) provides special protection for vulnerable persons, but remains concerned that de facto discrimination persists regarding access to education, health care and social benefits....

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) ensure the availability of Romanian language courses, as stipulated by law, to facilitate the integration of asylum-seeker and refugee children in the education system;

b) consider preferential treatment for refugees to benefit from exemptions from reductions in tuition fees for upper secondary and university education....

“The Committee welcomes the implementation of strategies aimed at improving Roma children’s rights to health-care services and inclusion in education (e.g. through the use of health and education mediators and supportive tuition in the Roma language).... However, it remains concerned at the negative attitudes and prejudices of the general public, in the political discourse and media representations as well as at incidents of police brutality and discriminatory behaviour on the part of some teachers and doctors.

“In accordance with articles 2 and 30 of the Convention, the Committee recommends that the State party:

a) initiate campaigns, at all levels and in all regions, aimed at addressing the negative attitudes towards the Roma in society at large, in particular among authorities such as the police and professionals providing health care, education and other social services;

b) based on the evaluation of previous strategies, develop and implement a comprehensive strategy for improving access to primary health care, education and social welfare services, in cooperation with Roma NGO partners, and targeting the whole Roma child population;

c) develop curriculum resources for all schools, including in relation to Roma history and culture, in order to promote understanding, tolerance and respect for Roma in Romanian society.”

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Russian Federation

(23 November 2005, CRC/C/RUS/CO/3, Concluding observations on third report, paras. 23, 25, 49, 50, 64, 65, 66 and 67)

“The Committee is concerned at reports of incidents of discrimination against children belonging to different religious and ethnic minorities. It is also concerned that children belonging to minorities, and in particular Roma children, are more likely to be restricted in the full enjoyment of their rights, in particular with regard to health and education services....

“The Committee also requests that specific information be included in the next periodic report on the measures and programmes relevant to the Convention on the Rights of the Child undertaken by the State party to follow up on the Declaration and Programme of Action adopted at the 2001 World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, also taking into account general comment No. 1 (2001) on the aims of education.

“The Committee notes with concern that insufficient efforts are being made to include children with disabilities in the mainstream system of education as they are more often than not sent to corrective “auxiliary schools” and “correcting classes”. It is also concerned at the significant overrepresentation of children with disabilities in boarding schools.

“The Committee recommends that the State party take all necessary measures: ...

b) to ensure that children with disabilities have equal access to services, taking into consideration the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96);

c) to review the placement of children with disabilities in boarding schools with a view to limiting such placements only to those cases where they are in the best interests of the child;

d) to provide equal educational opportunities for children with disabilities, including by abolishing the practice of “corrective” and “auxiliary schools”, by providing the necessary support and by ensuring that teachers are trained to educate children with disabilities in regular schools.

“... Although the Committee commends the State party for the decrease in the number of adult illiterates and the decrease in the proportion of women illiterates, it is concerned about the number of adolescent illiterates and the increase in the proportion of girls among them....

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) take the necessary measures to ensure that all children have access to primary and secondary education; ...

c) strengthen efforts to bridge the racial disparity in education, giving special attention to promoting education of minority-language people....

“While the Committee welcomes the access to education provided to refugee children and asylum-seekers in the Moscow region, it is concerned that the remaining regions do not offer such access....

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) take the necessary legislative and administrative measures to ensure that refugee, asylum-seeking and internally displaced children enjoy access to education in all parts of the Russian Federation....”

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Rwanda

(1 July 2004, CRC/C/15/Add.234, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 46, 47, 56, 57 and 75)

“The Committee welcomes the launching of a study to assess access to education by disabled children, but remains concerned at the lack of data on such children and at the inadequate legal and de facto protection of and the insufficient facilities and services for children with disabilities. Concern is also expressed at the limited number of trained teachers available to work with children with disabilities, as well as the insufficient efforts made to facilitate their inclusion in the educational system and generally in society. The Committee also notes with concern the inadequate resources allocated to special education programmes for children with disabilities.

“In the light of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96, annex) and the recommendations adopted by the Committee during its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339), it is recommended that the State party: ...

c) establish special education programmes for children with disabilities and, where feasible, integrate such children into mainstream schools and public life; ...

e) increase the resources, both financial and human, allocated to special education and the support to children with disabilities;

f) seek technical cooperation for the training of professional staff, including teachers, working with and for children with disabilities from, among others, WHO and UNICEF.

“The Committee welcomes the fact that article 40 of the 2003 Constitution provides for free and compulsory education in public schools and that enrolment rates in primary education are similar for boys and girls, but is concerned that enrolment in schools is still low and that illiteracy is widespread. The Committee is also concerned at the gender and regional disparities in attendance, the high drop-out and repeat rates, the insufficient numbers of trained teachers, schools and classrooms, and the lack of relevant teaching material. In the light of article 29, paragraph 1, of the Convention, the Committee is also concerned at the quality of education in the State party.

“The Committee recommends that the State party take all necessary measures to:

a) progressively ensure that girls and boys, from urban, rural and least developed areas, all have equal access to educational opportunities....

“The Committee is concerned at the situation of children belonging to minorities, including Batwa children, in particular their limited access to basic social services, including health care, immunization and education, and the violation of their rights to survival and development, to enjoy their own culture and to be protected from discrimination.”

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S

Samoa

(16 October 2006, CRC/C/WSM/CO/1, Concluding observations on initial report, paras. 44 and 45)

“The Committee is concerned ... at the inadequate support given to children with special needs in the educational system.

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) take note of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339);

c) encourage the inclusion of children with disabilities into the regular educational system, inter alia, by establishing special units in all communities, giving more attention to special training for teachers and making the physical environment, including schools, sports and leisure facilities and all other public areas, accessible for children with disabilities....”

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San Marino

(27 October 2003, CRC/C/15/Add.214, Concluding observations on initial report, para. 3)

“The Committee notes with appreciation the many measures taken to implement the Convention, inter alia: ...

b) that all children with disabilities are in regular schools with the exception of severely disabled children....”

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Sao Tome and Principe

(1 July 2004, CRC/C/15/Add.235, Concluding observations on initial report, paras. 42 and 52)

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) develop inclusive policies and programmes for children with disabilities enabling them to actively participate in the life of the family and society;

c) review the situation of these children in terms of their access to suitable health care, education services and employment opportunities and allocate adequate resources to develop services for children with disabilities, support their families and train professionals in the field;

d) take note of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities adopted by the General Assembly in resolution 48/96, and of the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339); and

e) seek assistance from, among others, UNICEF and WHO.

“In the light of articles 28 and 29 of the Convention, the Committee recommends that the State party: ...

c) progressively ensure that girls and boys, from urban, rural and least developed areas have equal access to educational opportunities, without any financial obstacles....”

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Saudi Arabia

(17 March 2006, CRC/C/SAU/CO/2, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 53, 54, 62, 63, 65, 66, 68 and 69)

“The Committee commends the State party for its efforts to ensure that children with disabilities have better opportunities in society by integrating them with their peers into schools, cultural and sporting events. Nevertheless, the Committee is concerned that children with disabilities face de facto discrimination in their every day life and that the national programmes and policies for children with disabilities lack the rights-based approach.

“The Committee recommends that the State party, taking into account the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the recommendations adopted by the Committee on its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (see CRC/C/69), mainstream the rights-based approach to all national policies and programmes for children with disabilities. It further recommends that the State party take necessary measures to prevent de facto discrimination against children with disabilities and integrate them into society, including education and cultural activities, taking into account their dignity and by promoting their independence.

“The Committee takes note of the State party’s efforts to eradicate illiteracy but it also notes with concern that the female adult illiterate population has slightly increased while the general illiteracy rate has declined. With this respect the Committee regrets the lack of information on non-formal education services for educationally deprived children outside the formal sector. It notes with appreciation the State party’s efforts to address the special educational needs of Bedouin children....

“In the light of articles 28 and 29 of the Convention, the Committee recommends that the State party continue to allocate adequate financial, human and technical resources in order to:

a) ensure that all children have an equal access to quality education at all levels of the educational system; ...

d) take effective targeted measures to eradicate illiteracy, e.g. through literacy programmes and non-formal education, and pay particular attention to women and girls in this respect....

“... As regards the principles, goals and objectives of education in Saudi Arabia, the Committee regrets the distinction between male and female roles in the curricula resulting in discrimination against girls.

“... As regards the situation of girls in education, it recommends that the State party take measures to break down stereotypical attitudes about the roles and responsibilities of women and men and to critically review its school curricula with a view to abolishing all discriminatory practices in education, including girls’ limited access to vocational education and training.

“The Committee recommends that the State party, taking into account article 22 and other relevant provisions of the Convention, take all feasible measures to ensure full protection and care, as well as access to health and social services and to education, of asylum-seeking and refugee children in Saudi Arabia....

“Noting the very high number of non-Saudi (migrant) workers in the State party, and the status of female domestic workers on the margins of society, the Committee is concerned about the situation and vulnerability of non-Saudi (migrant) workers’ children in the Saudi society. It notes with concern that non-Saudi (migrant) workers’ children without legal residence status do not have access to health services or to education....”

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Senegal

(20 October 2006, CRC/C/SEN/CO/2, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 43, 54 and 55)

“The Committee recommends that, while taking into account the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the Committee’s recommendations adopted on its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities held on 6 October 1997 (CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339), the State party take all necessary measures to:

a) further encourage the inclusion of children with disabilities into the regular educational system and into society, inter alia by giving more attention to special training for teachers and making the physical environment, including schools, sports and leisure facilities and all other public areas, accessible for children with disabilities;

b) adopt an inclusive and right-based legal framework, that addresses the specific needs of children with disabilities....

“The Committee ... notes with appreciation the increase in the enrolment rate particularly for girls.... However, the Committee is concerned at the still low level of enrolment in primary education, particularly in rural areas ... the insufficient support for children with disabilities and the exclusion of pregnant girls from school in application of an internal administration circular from the board of education.

“The Committee recommends that the State party, while taking into account the Committee’s general comment No. 1 (2001) on the aims of education: ...

b) ensure that girls and boys of urban, rural and least developed areas, all have equal access to educational opportunities and strengthen its efforts to significantly increase the enrolment in primary education and pay special attention to urban and rural disparities; ...

d) cancel the administrative circular preventing pregnant girls to continue with their education on the basis of their individual ability, in accordance with article 11 (6) of the 1990 African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Children.”

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Serbia

(6 June 2008, CRC/C/SRB/CO/1 Unedited version, Concluding observations on initial report, paras. 25, 26, 48, 49, 60, 61, 74 and 75)

“... The Committee notes that the draft law on prohibiting discrimination is awaiting adoption and is concerned, that certain groups of children, including Roma children, children of returnees, children without birth certificate, children belonging to minorities and children with disabilities, face de facto discrimination, most importantly with regard to access to education and health care....

“In accordance with article 2, the Committee recommends that the State party make greater efforts to ensure that all children within its jurisdiction enjoy all the rights enshrined in the Convention without discrimination and pay particular attention to the most vulnerable groups. The Committee recommends that the State party use all measures to overcome the stigmatization. The Committee also recommends the State party take effective immediate action to favour children belonging to vulnerable groups to enable them to effectively enjoy full access to education and any other rights, including by expediting the adoption of a law on the prohibition of discrimination and increase awareness-raising of the role of the media.

“The Committee welcomes the efforts made by the State party to assist children with disabilities and their families, the start of pilot progammes and projects to provide inclusive education, and the steps aimed at the de-institutionalization of children and the shift towards family-based care.... However, the Committee is concerned ... that many children with disabilities are not included in the mainstream education system and at the general lack of resources and specialized staff for these children. It is also concerned at the prevailing societal attitudes which are conducive to stigmatization of children with disabilities.

“With regard to the State party’s efforts to provide equal opportunities for the full participation of children with disabilities in all spheres of life, the Committee draws attention to the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the Committee’s General Comment No. 9 (2006) on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/GC/9), and recommends the State party to take all necessary measures to: ...

b) ensure that public education policy and school curricula reflect in all their aspects the principle of full participation and equality and include children with disabilities in the mainstream school system to the extent possible and, where necessary, establish special education programmes tailored to their special needs; ...

e) ensure that professionals working with and for children with disabilities as well as teachers and social workers, such as medical, paramedical and related personnel are adequately trained;

f) ratify the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol, both signed on 17 December 2007; and

g) seek technical cooperation with, among others, UNICEF and WHO.

“The Committee ... remains concerned at: ...

d) the incomplete enrolment, the high levels of drop-outs and the comparatively lower achievement of children belonging to vulnerable groups, including children from rural areas, children living in economic hardship and deprivation, Roma children and children from other minority groups, refugee and internally displaced children;

e) the slow progress in the training sufficient numbers of teachers able to teach in minority languages; ...

i) the quality of education and the situation of the most vulnerable groups of children.

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) take all necessary measures to ensure that the right to education is fully implemented, so that children belonging to vulnerable groups, including rural children, children living in economic hardship and deprivation, Roma children and children from other minority groups, refugee and internally displaced children fully enjoy their right to education;

f) in the light of article 29 of the Convention, the Committee recommends that the State party:

iii. establish adequate programmes and activities with a view to create a school environment of tolerance, peace and understanding of cultural diversity shared by all children to prevent intolerance, bullying and discrimination in schools and society at large; and

iv. take account of the Committee’s General Comment No. 1 on the aims of education, in particular with regard to children belonging to the most vulnerable groups (i.e. minority groups, those living in poverty, refugee and returnee children, Roma children, children with disabilities, etc.).

“The Committee, while noting the efforts made by the State party, such as the adoption of the Law on Protection of Rights and Freedoms of National Minorities, the Committee remains deeply concerned at the negative attitudes and prejudices of the general public and at the overall situation of children of minorities and in particular Roma children. The Committee is concerned at the effect this has with regard to discrimination and disparity, poverty and denial of their equal access to health; education; housing, employment; non-enrolment in schools; cases of early marriage; and decent standard of living. The Committee is also concerned at the very low levels of participation in early childhood development programmes and daycare and the deprivation of education.

“The Committee urges the State party to:

a) initiate campaigns including throughout the media at all levels and regions, aimed at addressing the negative attitudes towards the Roma in society at large, including among police and other professionals;

b) strengthen its efforts to remove discrimination and to continue developing and implementing - in close collaboration with the Roma community itself - policies and programmes aimed at ensuring equal access to culturally appropriate services, including early childhood development and education; ...

d) develop curricula units for children at school level, including in relation to Roma history and culture, in order to promote understanding, tolerance and respect for the rights of Roma in Serbian society as well as to enhance their Serbian language skills; and

e) raise awareness of the Roma communities about the value of the girl child, her right to access education without discrimination as well as her right to be protected from early marriage and its harmful impact.”

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Seychelles

(9 October 2002, CRC/C/15/Add.189, Concluding observations on initial report, paras. 44, 45 and 49)

“The Committee is encouraged by the State party’s efforts, together with the National Council for the Disabled, to combat discrimination against children and adults with disabilities. Nevertheless, the Committee is concerned that children with disabilities have limited access to public facilities and services because the physical environment is not appropriately designed or because staff and programmes have not been designed to ensure integration of children with disabilities.

“Taking note of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96, annex) and the results of the Committee’s day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities, held on 6 October 1997 (see CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339), the Committee recommends that the State party continue its cooperation with the National Council for the Disabled and other relevant civil society organizations, in particular in:

a) developing and implementing a policy aimed at the full integration of children with disabilities into the mainstream school system....

“In light of the Committee’s General Comment No. 1 on article 29, paragraph 1, of the Convention (aims of education), the Committee recommends that the State party:

a) consider creating study groups in schools involving students at higher and lower levels in order to contribute to the improvement of the achievements of students with learning difficulties; ...

d) ratify the Convention against Discrimination in Education, of 1960 of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.”

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Sierra Leone

(6 June 2008, CRC/C/SLE/CO/2 Unedited version, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 25, 49, 50, 64 and 65)

“The Committee notes with appreciation the section on the principle of non-discrimination, including against girls, contained in the Education Act (2004) and the ongoing and increasing efforts to educate the public on the need for non-discrimination, particularly against the girl child and children with disabilities....

“The Committee ... expresses its concern over reports that children with disabilities are excluded from the regular education system due to parents who do not want to send their children to school, the lack of teachers trained to teach children with disabilities and the inaccessibility of the infrastructure to children with disabilities.

“In light of the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the Committee’s general comment No. 9 on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/GC/9, 2006), the Committee recommends that the State party: ...

c) carry out awareness campaigns to sensitise parents as well as the public about the rights and special needs of children with disabilities and encourage their inclusion in society; ...

e) provide training for professional staff working with children with disabilities, such as teachers, medical, paramedical and related personnel and social workers; and

f) consider ratifying the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol.

“The Committee notes that the Education Act (2004) ... and a corresponding Education Policy promote education for girls, vocational training, including for drop-outs and enhanced quality, inter alia by teacher training. The Committee is concerned that despite increased enrolment and completion rates in primary schools, enrolment is still low, in particular for girls....

“The Committee recommends that the State party, taking into account its general comment No. 1 (CRC/GC/2001/1) on the aims of education: ...

b) expand access to education, including early childhood education, to all regions of the State party; ...

e) reduce socio-economic, regional and gender disparities in access to and full enjoyment of the right to education....”

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Singapore

(27 October 2003, CRC/C/15/Add.220, Concluding observations on initial report, paras. 40, 41, 42 and 43)

“While noting that special education services are widely available in the State party, the Committee is concerned that children with disabilities are not fully integrated into the education system....

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) extend the Compulsory Education Act (2003) to include special schools and all children with disabilities;

b) facilitate greater integration and participation of children with disabilities into mainstream education and society at large, inter alia through an improvement in curricula and pedagogical services....

“... the Committee is concerned that not all children within the State party’s jurisdiction are covered by the Compulsory Education Act or have access to free primary school....

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) extend the Compulsory Education Act to include all children within the State party, including non-citizens, and monitor the implementation of the Act to ensure that all children attend school....”

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Slovak Republic

(10 July 2007, CRC/C/SVK/CO/2, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 27, 47, 48, 57, 58, 59 and 60)

“... the Committee expresses its concern that Act No. 136/2003 Coll. and Act No. 365/2004 Coll. on equal treatment in certain areas and on protection against discrimination, and on amendments to certain acts (“the Anti-Discrimination Law”) do not provide protection from discrimination in the areas of social security, healthcare, education and provisions of goods and services on the grounds of ethnicity, disability, religion or belief, and sexual orientation....

“... the Committee expresses its concern ... that the majority o primary and secondary schools lack sufficient financial, material and human resources for the inclusive education of children with disabilities. The Committee is also concerned that Roma children with disabilities experience double discrimination.

“In the light of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the Committee’s general comment No. 9 (2006) on the rights of children with disabilities, the Committee recommends that the State party: ...

d) provide training for professional staff working with children with disabilities, such as medical, paramedical and related personnel, teachers and social workers; and

e) consider signing and ratifying the International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol.

“The Committee notes with appreciation the educational reform underway emphasizing the active participation of the child and supporting disadvantaged groups, including Roma children. The Committee also welcomes the establishment of “zero classes”. Nevertheless, the Committee remains concerned that:

a) not all children from socially marginalized groups regularly attend school and regrets the lack of data on these children;

b) efforts to adapt instruction and schools to the learning conditions of children living far from schools, particularly Roma children, have not been completed....

“The Committee recommends that the State party, taking into account its general comment No. 1 (2001) on the aims of education:

a) take all necessary measures to ensure that children have equal opportunities for access to schools, including the possibility to receive an education in their mother tongue;

b) ensure that measures and policies adopted to facilitate access to the education of children, particularly children belonging to the Roma, are given adequate human and financial resources to allow their effective implementation;

c) take steps to ensure that the educational curriculum and teaching material take into account the culture and history of children belonging to different minority groups, particularly the Roma, while at the same time ensuring that this does not lead to the creation of separate curricula or separate classes....

“... The Committee is concerned that persons, including children, belonging to minority groups, particularly the Roma population, are subjected to discrimination in, inter alia, education, health, and public services....

“The Committee urges the State party to recognize the rights of persons, including children, belonging to minority groups and to consider adopting a comprehensive legal act providing protection of the rights of such persons. In particular, the Committee urges the State party to ensure that children belonging [to] minority groups have equal access to education, health and other services....”

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Slovenia

(26 February 2004, CRC/C/15/Add.230, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 22, 23, 42, 43, 54 and 57)

“... while welcoming measures taken to facilitate the integration of Roma children into regular primary schools, the Committee is concerned at the high number of Roma children attending classes for children with special needs.

“... the Committee recommends that the State party take further measures to improve the standard of living of Roma children and ensure that all these children are integrated into mainstream education, so that special assistance and support for Roma children can be provided at regular classes....

“The Committee ... is also concerned about the low enrolment of female children with disabilities in school.

“In light of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on “The rights of children with disabilities” (CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339), the Committee encourages the State party ... to address the low enrolment of female children with disabilities in school.

“The Committee notes with satisfaction that children with temporary refugee status are able to enrol in primary and secondary education under the same conditions as Slovene children....

“... The State party should ensure that reception centres have special sections for children and that necessary support, including access to education, is given to children and families throughout the process [of claiming asylum] with the involvement of all authorities concerned with a view to finding durable solutions in the best interests of the child.”

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Solomon Islands

(2 July 2003, CRC/C/15/Add.208, Concluding observations on initial report, paras. 21, 23, 38, 39, 46, 47 and 49)

“The Committee is concerned that:

a) there continues to be widespread discrimination against women and girls and that girls are underrepresented in schools;

b) the principle of non-discrimination is not adequately implemented for children of some ethnic minorities and of economically disadvantaged households, children living in remote islands, children born out of wedlock and children with disabilities, especially with regard to their access to adequate health care and educational facilities.

“The Committee requests that specific information be included in the next periodic report on the measures and programmes relevant to the Convention on the Rights of the Child undertaken by the State party to follow up on the Declaration and Programme of Action adopted at the 2001 World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, and taking account of general comment No. 1 on article 29 (1) of the Convention (aims of education).

“The Committee is encouraged by the introduction of the Community Based Rehabilitation Programme. However, it is concerned that: ...

b) children with disabilities have no access to education....

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) in light of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on “ The rights of children with disabilities” (CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339), further encourage their integration into the regular educational system and inclusion into society, including by providing special training to teachers and by making schools more accessible....

“The Committee is concerned that: ...

e) enrolment of girls remains very low....

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

d) develop strategies to make education accessible to girls and to address their low enrolment rates....

“... The Committee further urges the State party to ensure that all displaced children and their families have access to essential health and education services and to consider the need for continued access to such services during the often slow process of return to communities of origin....”

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Spain

(1 October 2010, CRC.C.ESP.CO.3-4 Concluding Observations: Spain Paras. 25, 54, 55 and 56.)

“The Committee welcomes all efforts made by the State party to combat discrimination in its territory, particularly concerning children of Roma origin, children of migrant workers, unaccompanied foreign children and children with disabilities. It welcomes in particular the approval of Strategic Plan for Citizenship and Integration 2007-2010, aimed at guaranteeing access to migrant students to mandatory education and which facilitates integration in the educational system. However, the Committee remains concerned at the obstacles encountered in practice by children of foreigners in irregular situations in educational and health services.”

“The Committee welcomes the adoption of Law 2/2006 of 3 May on Education, which includes human rights content in primary and secondary education curricula in the subject of “Education for citizenship”. It further notes with appreciation the information provided by the State party according to which during the school year 2010-2011 the educational system will reach the highest ever rate of enrollment. It welcomes as well the increase in the number of teachers and the development of reinforcement, guidance and support plans to improve educational levels, particularly of students who are at an educational disadvantage and foreign pupils. The Committee shares, however, the concern of the State party at the rate of premature school drop out which continues to be very high. The Committee is also concerned at the low participation of children and adolescents in schools, which is still under-developed and is limited to School Councils starting in secondary education.”

“The Committee recommends that the State party to:

      (a) Strengthen its efforts to reduce the rate of premature school drop out and take necessary measures to ensure that children complete their schooling, taking concrete action to address the reasons behind non-completion of schooling;
      (b) Expand vocational education and training for children who have left school without certificates, enabling them to acquire competencies and skills in order to enhance their work opportunities;
      (c) Ensure the right of all children to a truly inclusive education which ensures the full enjoyment to children from all disadvantaged, marginalized and school-distant groups;
      d) Ensure the right of children to participate in school environment starting with primary education.”

“The Committee welcomes the efforts to combat violence in schools, including through the Action Plan for the Promotion and Improvement of School Coexistence and the Master Plan for Coexistence and Improvement of School Safety, and encourages the State party to continue its efforts to combat bullying in schools and invite children to participate in efforts to reduce and eliminate these harmful behaviors.”

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Sri Lanka

(1 October 2010, CRC-C-LKA-CO-3-4 Concluding Observations: Sri Lanka Paras. 50, 51, 62 and 63.)

“The Committee welcomes the adoption of a National Policy on Disability in 2003 which promotes an inclusive approach to education for children with disabilities. It is however concerned that a high number of children with disabilities, most of them girls, remain deprived of any type of education and that opportunities for children with some types of disabilities, such as autism, hearing, speech and vision impairments are almost non existent. The Committee further expresses concern that:

      (a) Social stigma, fears and misconceptions surrounding disabilities remain strong in society, leading to the marginalization and alienation of children with disabilities;
      b) No survey has been conducted in the State party on children with disabilities which hinder the formulation of proper strategies and programmes;
      (c) Proper detection system and early intervention services are lacking, notably due to the dearth of specialized health professionals;
      (d) Confusion and overlapping of powers and functions among the different ministries dealing with the disability issue negatively affect the coordination of actions for children with disabilities;
      (e) Few children are included in mainstream children’s programmes; and
      (f) Special schools assisted by the Government are not adequately registered and monitored and children with disabilities are still institutionalized in State or voluntary institutions, which are not equipped to accommodate such children.”

“The Committee recommends that the State party strengthen its efforts to fully implement the 2003 National Policy on Disabilities in order to ensure that all children with disabilities, particularly girls, have access to education. To this aim, the Committee reiterates its previous recommendations on the measures to be taken regarding special and mainstream education and the registration of special schools ( CRC/C/15/Add.207 para.37b)) and also urges the State party to:

      (a) Sensitize and educate the public at large and persons working with children with disabilities on the rights of children with disabilities in order to eliminate stigma and marginalization of these children;
      (b) Ensure that reliable statistics on children with disabilities are collected during the 2011 population census; …
      (d) Designate a single body to coordinate actions and strategies for children with disabilities;
      (e) Allocate the necessary human and financial resources to improve the quality of mainstream and special education, and further develop non formal education programmes as well as comprehensive and regular teacher trainings adapted to the different types of disabilities;
      (f) Remove children with disabilities from institutions which are unable to fulfill their rights and meet their needs and establish a special care system with specialized facilities and trained personnel; and
      (g) Take into account the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the Committee’s General Comment No. 9 on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/GC/9, 2006).”

“The Committee commends the State party for the significant progress achieved over the years in the areas of school enrolment, literacy and gender equality. The Committee also welcomes the adoption of the Education Sector Development Framework and Programme (2006-2010) which focuses mainly on improving equity in access to education and the quality of education as well as the National Policy on Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) adopted in 2005. Nevertheless, the Committee is concerned that:

      (a) In spite of the need for school infrastructure, especially in conflict affected areas where schooling has been disrupted for thousands of displaced children, public investment in education is at a relatively modest level and lower than the South Asian average;
      (b) Significant disparities in accessing education persist between provinces, affecting in particular the Uva, Northern, North Central and Eastern provinces and the most vulnerable and marginalized children;
      (c) School fees continue to be charged despite the constitutional guarantee of free education introducing discrimination against children from poor families and facilitating corruption in school admissions;
      (d) The National Policy on Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) is not funded or implemented, leaving most early childhood development programmes in private hands;
      (e) One out of five children drop out of school before completing the compulsory nine-year cycle and that high level of absenteeism and repetition persist due mainly to the low quality of education, especially in the most remote areas where unqualified teachers continue to work;
      (f) Children have few opportunities to be involved in decision making in educational settings; and
      (g) Insufficient efforts have been made to include human rights and peace education in the school curricula.”

“The Committee recommends that the State party, taking into account its general comment No. 1 (CRC/GC/2001/1) on the aims of education:

      a) Ensure adequate funding of the public education system and urgently develop a comprehensive education plan for conflict affected areas in the North and East of the country with clear budgetary allocations for its full implementation and monitoring;
      (b) Strengthen efforts to reduce disparities among provinces and districts in access to and full enjoyment of the right to education and in particular inequalities in the distribution of resources to schools, including distribution of teachers and provide the required resources and appropriate incentives for teachers to work in disadvantaged areas;
      (c) Take the necessary measures to effectively abolish school fees throughout the State party ensuring that no child is refused admission to school and take measures to prosecute perpetrators of corruption in schools;
      (d) Take steps to fund the National Policy on Early Childhood Care and Education and ensure a holistic early childhood development programme for all children within the State party;
      (e) Improve the quality of education and ensure that children complete their schooling by taking concrete action to address the reasons behind non-completion of schooling and ensure through a comprehensive teacher education system that teachers are well-trained and fully qualified;
      (f) Provide suitable vocational or second chance education for dropouts, especially in conflict affected areas;
      (g) Develop child-friendly approaches in schools and ensure effective child and community participation in decision making and management of schools; and
      (h) Provide human rights education and, in particular, education in peace, tolerance and reconciliation for all children in school and train teachers on the promotion of these values in children's education.”

(2 July 2008, CRC/C/15/Add.207, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 36 and 37)

“The Committee is concerned that a significant number of children with disabilities, in particular girls, are not able to attend school and that not all special schools managed by non-governmental organizations are registered by the Ministry of Education, and they are concentrated in the more developed and urbanized Western Province.

“In light of the recommendations of the Committee’s day of general discussion on the private sector as service provider and its role in implementing child rights in 2002 (see CRC/C/121), the Committee recommends that the State party:

a) ensure that all children with disabilities, particularly girls, have access to education by increasing spending and expanding special education programmes, including non-formal special education in rural areas, and by training teachers in mainstream education about special needs;

b) register and monitor all special schools run by non-State actors....”

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St Lucia

(21 September 2005, CRC/C/15/Add.258, Concluding observations on initial report, paras. 54, 61 and 63)

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) take note of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339);

c) encourage the integration of children with disabilities into the regular educational system and their inclusion into society, inter alia, by giving more attention to special training for teachers and making the physical environment, including schools, sports and leisure facilities and all other public areas, accessible for children with disabilities....

“While the Committee is encouraged that the State party has developed “Education Sector Development Plan 2000 to 2005 and Beyond” and that there has been an increase in secondary school enrolment, it remains concerned that the State party does not provide universal access for children in particular to secondary school. It is further concerned at the lack of continued education of school-aged teen mothers, and the growing number of children who drop out of school, particularly among boys.

“In the light of articles 28 and 29 of the Convention and its general comment No. 1 (2001) on the aims of education, the Committee recommends that the State party allocate adequate human and financial resources in order to:

a) adopt effective measures to include all children in primary education and urgently decrease the dropout rates for children, particularly boys; ...

d) ensure that teenage mothers continue their education.”

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Sudan

(1 October 2010, CRC-C-SDN-CO-3 Concluding Observations: Sudan Paras. 48, 49, 64, 65, 66 and 67)

“The Committee … is also concerned at the exclusion suffered by children with disabilities in social, educational and other settings and at the limited access to basic services.”

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

      (a) ensure that the rights of children with disabilities are mainstreamed in both legislation and policy across all areas of child rights;
      (b) take effective steps to combat isolation, social stigmatization and other forms of discrimination in all areas, including schools, by implementing a comprehensive integration policy;
      (c) ensure that children with disabilities have equitable access to basic services, including health and education; and
      d) conduct programmes, implemented with the assistance of the media, civil society organisations and community leaders, to raise awareness of the rights of children with disabilities and to combat discrimination against them.”

“The Committee expresses its deep concern that, due to the protracted armed conflict and to ongoing instability, the majority of children in Southern Sudan do not receive primary or secondary education. The Committee notes with concern the extremely low budget allocations for education, resulting in the lack of availability of trained teachers, poor school infrastructure and a chronic shortage of supplies and equipment. The Committee is, furthermore, concerned that many children are obliged to work outside the home in order to earn income for school fees. The Committee is also concerned over the limited opportunities for primary education as well as the unavailability of secondary education for children in camps accommodating internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Darfur.”

“The Committee recommends that the State party ensure that adequate financial resources are made available for the education sector, particularly in Southern Sudan and Darfur. In particular, the State party is urged to focus its efforts on:

      (a) ensuring that primary education is free and that secondary education is available and accessible for all children;
      (b) rebuilding damaged infrastructure, including school buildings and sanitation facilities;
      (c) strengthening current efforts to provide additional, qualified staff and ensuring adequate supplies of materials and equipment; and
      (d) ensuring that primary and secondary education is available for all children in IDP camps in Darfur.”

“The Committee notes with concern that enrolment and completion rates at both primary and secondary school levels in the State party as a whole remain extremely low. It is also concerned that, due to factors such as the low priority generally given to the education of girls, early marriage and poverty, many girls do not attend school. The Committee regrets the lack of information on the vocational education and training opportunities available to children in the State party.”

“The Committee recommends that the State party take effective measures to ensure access to free primary and affordable secondary education for all children. Such measures should:

      (a) address low enrolment as well as completion rates;
      (b) take into account the effect of poverty and income disparities on the realization of the right to education;
      (c) pay adequate attention to the particularly vulnerable situation of girls and to the role played by traditional views on the place of women and girls in society; and
      (d) integrate long-term programmes to raise awareness of the importance of education and of the rights of all children in this regard;
      (e) provide early childhood education facilities, in particular for children from disadvantaged backgrounds; and
      (f) provide vocational education and training in order to better prepare children for qualified work and employment.”

(9 October 2002, CRC/C/15/Add.190, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 26, 46, 53, 54, 55 and 56)

“The Committee is concerned that:

a) there are significant inequalities regarding access to basic health and education services between children living in different parts of the country, most especially between southern Sudan and the rest of the country....

“In the context of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96, annex) and the results of the Committee’s day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities, held on 6 October 1997 (see CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339) the Committee recommends that the State party:

b) make every effort to bring an end to traditional beliefs and stigma prejudicial to children with disabilities, including through education and information programmes;

e) adopt and implement, as needed, legislative and administrative provisions to ensure that children with disabilities have access to public buildings, including hospitals and schools....

“The Committee takes note of the adoption of the General Education Act 2002 and the establishment of a girls’ basic education service and of an education service for nomadic children....

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

e) give particular attention to ensuring the enrolment in school of girls, children with disabilities, refugee children and children from nomadic groups, and continue and strengthen efforts to provide special education and mobile education facilities for children with disabilities and nomadic children, respectively, who are in need of them; ...

g) make particular efforts to improve access to education in southern Sudan....

“The Committee is deeply concerned at the fact that the availability, accessibility and quality of education in the southern part of the country is much worse than in the rest of the country (e.g. only 16-18 per cent of children have access to education and not more than 20 per cent of those are girls; the drop-out rate is still high; teachers are not paid salaries and most of them are not qualified; schools are often too far away and education is regularly disrupted by the armed conflict; and availability of educational material is very limited). These and other concerns lead to the following recommendations, particularly for the southern part of the country.

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

c) implement measures to improve children’s access to schools through, inter alia, the provision of transport to schools over a certain distance away or the establishment of additional schools closer to children;

d) give particular attention to increasing the number of girls enrolling in and completing education....”

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Suriname

(18 June 2007, CRC/C/SUR/CO/2, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 49, 50, 59, 60, 61 and 62)

“The Committee welcomes the implementation by the State party of a public-awareness campaign aimed at the inclusion of children with disabilities.... The Committee also welcomes the development of a lesson plan for teachers from primary schools to create awareness for the children at those schools regarding disabilities, the setting up of a multi-disciplinary team for referrals of children to special education, and the existence of parent associations to educate parents on how to deal with children with disabilities. The Committee notes that special education facilities are available at primary and secondary level. Nevertheless, the Committee expresses its concern at the continued absence of legal protection and lack of adequate facilities and services for children with disabilities.

“In the light of the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the Committee’s General Comment No. 9 on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/GC/9, 2006), the Committee recommends that the State party:

a) sign and ratify the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol once open for ratification;

b) take all necessary measures, in particular the adoption of the Draft Law on Special Education, to ensure the implementation of legislation providing protection for children with disabilities;

c) make every effort to provide programmes and services for all children with disabilities;

d) intensify its awareness campaigns to sensitize the public to the rights and special needs of children with disabilities and further encourage their inclusion in society;

e) provide training for professional staff working with children with disabilities, such as medical, paramedical and related personnel, teachers and social workers.

“The Committee ... notes that a Law on Special Education has been drafted.... While the Committee notes with appreciation the increased enrolment and completion rates in primary schools, it is nevertheless concerned at the significantly low primary school attendance rates of children living in the interior of the country, almost all belonging to indigenous and minority groups, and at the lack of early childhood education. The Committee also notes with concern the high number of children (especially boys) dropping out of schools....

“The Committee recommends that the State party, taking into account the Committee’s General Comment No. 1 (CRC/GC/2001/1) on the aims of education:

a) reduce socio-economic and regional disparities in access to and full enjoyment of the right to education, and take specific measures to significantly reduce the high rates of dropouts; ...

f) widen the scope of second-chance opportunities for children (especially boys) who have dropped out of school and teenage girls who have become pregnant.

“The Committee is concerned that despite laws prohibiting discrimination on the basis of race or ethnicity, children belonging to indigenous or minority groups such as Amerindians and Maroons, are subjected to discrimination in, inter alia, access to education, health and public services.

“The Committee urges the State party to recognize and implement the rights of persons, including children, belonging to indigenous and minority groups and recommends that the State party undertake awareness-raising activities to address negative attitudes and prejudices towards children or people belonging to such groups. In particular, the Committee urges the State party to ensure that children belonging to indigenous or minority groups have equal treatment and access to education, health and other services.”

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Swaziland

(16 October 2006, CRC/C/SWZ/CO/1, Concluding observations on initial report, paras. 25, 48, 49 and 60)

“... The Committee is deeply concerned at the situation of girls, in particular adolescent girls who suffer marginalization and gender stereotyping, compromising their educational opportunities...

“The Committee is concerned about the discrimination against children with disabilities. It notes with concern that equal opportunities for children with disabilities are jeopardized, e.g. by their limited access to health, education, sporting facilities and the physical environment, and that social stigma, fears and misconceptions surrounding disabilities remain strong in society, leading to the marginalization and alienation of these children....

“The Committee recommends that the State party, while taking into account the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the recommendations adopted by the Committee on its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (1997), take all necessary measures: ...

d) to provide children with disabilities with access to adequate social and health services, to quality education and to the physical environment, information and communication; and

e) to ensure that professionals working with and for children with disabilities, such as medical, paramedical and related personnel, teachers and social workers, are adequately trained.

“The Committee recommends that the State party, taking into account its general comment No. 1 (CRC/GC/2001/1) on the aims of education: ...

c) undertake additional efforts to ensure access to formal and informal education to vulnerable groups, including orphans, children with disabilities, and children living in poverty, inter alia by eliminating the indirect costs of school education....”

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Sweden

(12 June 2009, CRC/C/SWE/CO/4 Advance unedited version, Concluding observations on fourth report, paras. 5, 41, 54 and 55)

“The Committee welcomes a number of positive developments in the reporting period, including:

a) the Anti-Discrimination Act which entered into force on 1 January 2009, includes age as a ground of discrimination and prohibits discrimination in all parts of the education system, as well as the establishment of the Office of the Equality Ombudsman responsible for its implementation....

“The Committee recommends that the State party, in accordance with article 23 of the Convention and taking into account General Comment No. 9 (CRC/C/GC/9) as well as the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol, continue to strengthen measures to protect and promote the rights of children with disabilities, inter alia, by:

a) developing and implementing a comprehensive policy for the protection of children with disabilities and for their equal access to social, educational and other services;

b) ensuring that equal access to services is provided to children with disabilities taking into consideration the standard rules on the equalization of opportunities for persons with disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96); ...

d) providing equal educational opportunities for children with disabilities, including by providing the necessary support and ensuring that teachers are trained to educate children with disabilities within the regular schools.

“While noting with appreciation the numerous efforts of the State party in the sphere of education, in order to guarantee the objectives set out in the Convention, the Committee remains concerned that children without residence permit, in particular ‘children in hiding’ and undocumented children, do not enjoy the right to education. However, the Committee notes the statement by the State party in its replies to the List of issues that the Government plans to appoint a supplementary inquiry to propose how the right to education can be further extended....

“The Committee recommends that the State party pursue its efforts to ensure that all children enjoy the right to education, including children without residence permit, such as ‘children in hiding’ and undocumented children....”

(30 March 2005, CRC/C/15/Add.248, Concluding observations on third report, paras. 18, 19, 20, 37 and 38)

“The Committee welcomes the measures taken by the State party to combat racism, especially as it pertains to children, and to ensure that education of children is directed to the development of respect for civilizations different from his/her own and of friendship among all peoples, in accordance with article 29 (1) of the Convention. However, the Committee is concerned about reports of racism, especially in schools, and of racist organizations recruiting children from the age of 13.

“The Committee recommends that the State party continue strengthening the measures taken to combat racism and xenophobia, including in the field of education.

“The Committee requests that specific information be included, in the next periodic report, on the measures and programmes relevant to the Convention undertaken by the State party to follow-up on the Declaration and Programme of Action adopted at the 2001 World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, taking account of the Committee’s general comment No. 1 (2001) on the aims of education.

“The Committee ... is, nevertheless, concerned that:

a) children without resident permit, in particular children ‘in hiding’, do not have access to education;

b) there are considerable variations in results among the various regions.

“The Committee recommends that the State party pursue its efforts to ensure that:

a) all children enjoy the right to education, including children without resident permit, and ‘children in hiding’;

b) variations in results and differences between schools and regions are eradicated....”

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Syrian Arab Republic

(10 July 2003, CRC/C/15/Add.212, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 25, 38, 39, 44, 45 and 48)

“The Committee is concerned that both direct and indirect discrimination against the child, or his or her parents or legal guardians persists, contrary to article 2 of the Convention, particularly with respect to: ...

b) disparities in access to health and educational services between rural and urban areas, and particularly that the rural north and north-east of the country lag behind in social indicators.

“The Committee ... is concerned that children with disabilities, in general, have inadequate access to specialized services and education, and that there is insufficient support for families.

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) review existing policies and practice in relation to children with disabilities, taking due account of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and of the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on “Children with disabilities” (see CRC/C/69); ...

e) undertake greater efforts to include children with all forms of disability in mainstream education....

“The Committee is concerned that:

a) a high percentage of pupils drop out of primary and secondary school, especially children in rural areas and girls....

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) strengthen initiatives to stem the problem of school drop-out at primary and secondary levels, especially in rural areas and by girls, by addressing issues such as inadequate sanitation in school buildings, early marriages, indirect costs of attending school and the lack of school transportation....

“The Committee notes with appreciation the efforts the State party is taking as regards refugee children, particularly in relation to unaccompanied minors, access to education and ensuring birth registration....”

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T

Tunisia

(11 June 2010, CRC/C/TUN/CO/3 Concluding observations: Tunisia Paras. 4, 29, 49, 50, 55 and 56.

“The Committee notes with appreciation the adoption of:

      (c) Act No. 2005-83 of August 2005 aimed at achieving equal opportunities for persons with disabilities, particularly with regard to access to education, vocational training and employment, and at protecting them from all forms of discrimination …”

“The Committee requests that specific information be included in the next periodic report on the measures and programmes relevant to the Convention on the Rights of the Child undertaken by the State party to follow up on the Durban Declaration and Programme of Action adopted at the 2001 World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance as well as on the measures taken to follow up on the outcome document adopted at the 2009 Durban Review Conference, taking into account the Committee’s general comment No. 1 (2001) on the aims of education.”

“The Committee commends the State party for the adoption of the orientation law of 15 August 2005 and the subsequent review of its legal framework. The Committee notes with satisfaction that since the adoption of policies by the State party to place children with disabilities in regular schools, the number of pupils with disabilities attending regular schools increased more than fourfold. It is concerned, however, that the implementation of this policy remains too slow compared to established goals and that the integration of children with disabilities in regular schools is not accompanied with sufficient sensitivity campaigns and appropriate teacher trainings.”

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

      (a) Take all necessary measures to ensure the implementation of legislation providing protection and equal access to education, professional training, employment, and social and public life for children with disabilities, in a gender-sensitive manner;
      (b) Make every effort to provide appropriate inclusive programmes and services for all children with disabilities and ensure that such services receive adequate human and financial resources;
      (c) Undertake awareness programmes to sensitize the public about the rights and needs of children with disabilities and encourage their inclusion in society;
      (d) Provide training for professional staff working with children with disabilities, such as teachers, social workers, and medical, paramedical and related personnel;
      (e) Ensure the participation of children with disabilities and their families in policy and programme planning, monitoring and evaluation;
      (f) Take into consideration the Committee’s general comment No. 9 (2006) on the rights of children with disabilities.”

“The Committee commends the significant efforts deployed by the State party to increase enrolment rates in primary and secondary education, and to reduce drop-out rates as well as regional and urban/rural disparities. It notes with satisfaction the four-year priority programme of education (2001-2005) adopted in the framework of the national strategy to reduce disparities between different regions and between urban and rural areas. It also welcomes the progress made to expand preschool education and adult literacy programmes, and to improve access to information technologies. Nevertheless, the Committee is concerned at:

      (a) The dropout and repetition rates in both the first and second cycles of basic education which, while decreasing, continue to pose a significant challenge to the educational system;
      (b) The persistent regional and urban/rural disparities in education and in the quality of education facilities;
      (c) The fact that the enrolment in early childhood education remains low and that many poor families and those living in rural areas are excluded from these services due to the progressive withdrawal of the public sector to the benefit of the private sector as service providers of preschool education.”

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

      (a) Pursue and strengthen its efforts to eliminate regional and urban/rural disparities in education;
      (b) Pursue and strengthen its policy aimed at preventing school dropout and repetition and undertake a study on the reasons behind failure to complete schooling and linkages between the drop-out rate and the relevance of educational material and methods of teaching;
      (c) Reinforce the coordination of educational and social services and put in place an early warning mechanism enabling the timely re-entry of drop-out children in school or in alternative educational facilities which cater for their special educational and learning needs;
      (d) Expand vocational education in secondary schools and vocational training and apprenticeship programmes in the phase of transition from school to employment;
      (e) Encourage the participation of children at all levels of the educational system and ensure they can freely discuss, participate and express views and opinions on all matters affecting them;
      (f) Provide access to early childhood education supplied with qualified teachers for every child, and raise the awareness and motivation of parents with respect to pre-schools and early-learning opportunities;
      (g) Include human rights and child rights in the curricula of schools at all levels;
      (h) Take into account general comment No. 1 (2001) on the aims of education and general comment No. 7 (2005) on implementing child rights in early childhood.”

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Tajikistan

(29 January 2010, CRC/C/TJK/CO/2 Advance Unedited Version, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 7, 26, 50, 51, 62, 63 and 64)

“The Committee urges the State party to take all necessary measures to address those recommendations from the concluding observations of the initial report that have not – or not sufficiently – been implemented, in particular, those related, inter alia, to ... inclusive education....

“... The Committee is particularly concerned about the high drop out rates of girls in rural areas from schools due to negative traditional and religious attitudes on the roles of girls and women in the society....

“The Committee ... welcomes the establishment of the experts group that has analyzed the situation of children with disabilities, but it regrets that the state institutions for children with disabilities do not provide quality education, rehabilitation services and development of necessary skills. It also notes ... limited inclusion policies for children with disabilities.

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) increase its effort to carry out awareness raising campaigns to sensitize the public about the rights and special needs of children with disabilities and promote their inclusion in the system of education and in society; ...

d) improve the physical access of children with disabilities to public service buildings, including recreational infrastructures and schools;

e) improve conditions in residential institutions for children with disabilities and establish mechanisms of independent monitoring of standards of care and children’s rights in these institutions, as well as establish a system of training special education professionals;

f) consider ratifying the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol;

g) take into account article 23 and the Committee’s general comment No. 9 (2006) on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/GC/9) as well as the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96).

“The Committee ... notes the establishment of the Center for Gender Pedagogy, to support and promote gender equality in all levels of education starting from pre-school institutions. However, the Committee is concerned that the education of children is hampered by:

a) poor attendance, including the increasing number of drop outs, particularly among girls in rural areas, difficult access to education for children from low income families and girls; ...

f) insufficient training for teachers in minority languages and lack of school textbooks and materials in minority languages.

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) take all necessary measures to implement effectively the Education for All strategic programme; ...

c) review critically its school curricula with a view of abolishing all discriminatory practices in education, including girls’ limited access to education and training, by developing strategies to combat high level drop-outs of girls in rural areas, and take measures to break down stereotypical attitudes about the roles and responsibilities of women and men; ...

g) strengthen efforts to train teachers in minority languages and increase the number of textbooks in minority languages....

“The Committee welcomes the efforts in the area of birth registration of refugee children and notes that under the Constitution child refugees enjoy the right to education, health, and benefits....”

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Thailand

(17 March 2006, CRC/C/THA/CO/2, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 49, 50, 62, 63, 65, 68, 69, 78 and 79)

“The Committee notes with appreciation that the State party has undertaken many concrete measures to promote the full enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms by children with disabilities, including access to mainstream and specialized education and to vocational training. Despite these positive steps, the Committee is concerned that children with disabilities living in the remote areas of the country lack access to adequate health and social services, as well as to education....

“The Committee recommends that the State party, taking into account the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the recommendations adopted by the Committee on its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (see CRC/C/69), take all necessary measures to: ...

d) provide children with disabilities with physical access to schools and access to appropriate information and communication tools....

“The Committee welcomes various legislative, administrative, policy and budgetary measures to increase compulsory schooling from 6 to 9 years and to provide free education for up to 12 years, as well as to expand access to education, improve educational facilities and provide education in local or minority languages. In particular, the Committee welcomes the Cabinet’s resolution of 5 July 2005, which provides non-registered children, including children of non-registered migrants as well as stateless children with access to the regular education system. Notwithstanding these positive steps, the Committee remains concerned that some children, particularly those belonging to the most vulnerable groups and those living in remote areas, still do not have equal access to quality education....

“The Committee urges the State party to fully implement the Cabinet resolution, which provides non-registered children with access to the regular education system and to allocate adequate resources for its implementation at the local level. In light of article 28 of the Convention, the Committee recommends that the State party allocate adequate financial, human and technical resources in order to: ...

c) continue efforts to provide indigenous and minority children with equal access to quality education, which respects their distinct cultural patterns and uses local indigenous and minority languages;

d) ensure the supervision by the Ministry of Education of all schools within the jurisdiction of the State party to ensure that children receive the same educational curricula while respecting the rights of minorities to study their own language and religion, and to ensure that every child receiving education is protected from extremist political or religious ideology;

e) take all necessary measures to ensure equal access to quality education to children in the southernmost provinces of the State party belonging to the most vulnerable groups....

“The Committee recommends that the State party, taking into account its general comment No. 1 of 2001 (CRC/GC/2001/1) on the aims of education, take all measures to:

a) strengthen further its efforts to improve the quality of education, including through teacher training and expanding recruitment of qualified teachers, in particular women and persons from minority and indigenous groups....

“... the Committee notes with particular concern that children of migrant workers lack access to a range of health and education services....

“The Committee recommends ... that the children of migrant workers are ensured access to health and social services and to education in accordance with the principle of non-discrimination....

“The Committee expresses its concern about the situation of children belonging to indigenous, tribal and minority communities who are subject to both stigmatization and discrimination. In particular, it is concerned about widespread poverty among indigenous peoples and minorities and the limited enjoyment of their human rights, in particular, concerning their access to social and health services and education....

“The Committee recalls the State party’s obligations under articles 2 and 30 of the Convention and recommends that it ensure the full enjoyment, by indigenous and minority children, of all of their human rights equally and without discrimination. In this regard, the Committee ... urges the State party to continue to develop and implement policies and programmes in order to ensure equal access to culturally appropriate services, including social and health services and education....”

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Timor-Leste

(1 February 2008, CRC/C/TLS/CO/1 Unedited version, Concluding observations on initial report, paras. 26, 27, 56, 57, 65, 66 and 67)

“... The Committee notes with concern, however, that certain groups of children, including children of returnees, children who are not in possession of a baptism certificate, children deriving from sexual relationships among family members and children with disabilities, face de facto discrimination, most importantly with regard to access to education.

“In accordance with article 2, the Committee recommends that the State party make greater efforts to ensure that all children within its jurisdiction enjoy all the rights enshrined in the Convention without discrimination. The Committee recommends that the State party use legislative, policy and educational measures, including sensitization and awareness-raising, to overcome the stigmatization of the above-described groups of children and to remove obstacles faced by some children belonging to such groups with regard to access to education or the enjoyment of any other rights or entitlements.

“... The Committee regrets that children with disabilities are frequently excluded from mainstream education and community life, and placed in residential institutions.

“The Committee recommends that the State party, taking into account the Committee’s General Comment No. 9 (2006) on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/GC/9) as well as the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96), take all necessary measures to: ...

c) ensure that public education policy and school curricula reflect in all their aspects the principle of full participation and equality and include children with disabilities in the mainstream school system to the extent possible and, where necessary, establish special education programmes tailored to their special needs; ...

f) ratify the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol....

“In the light of article 28 of the Convention, Committee recommends that the State party allocate adequate financial, human and technical resources in order to: ...

f) take measures to address gender biases and stereotypes in order to improve girls’ participation in education after the primary level....

“... The Committee welcomes the State party’s consideration of the need to give more attention to indigenous culture within the educational curriculum.

“In the light of article 29 of the Convention, and taking into account the Committee’s General Comment No. 1 on the aims of education, the Committee recommends that the State party: ...

c) ensure that the educational curriculum is developed with due regard to the nature of indigenous culture and languages; and develop and promote cultural awareness and practice through school- and community based education, with a focus on the indigenous heritage and traditional art forms....”

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Togo

(31 March 2005, CRC/C/15/Add.255, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 25, 26, 27, 48, 49, 58 and 61)

“While noting the efforts made by the State party to address the issue, the Committee notes with concern that societal discrimination persists against vulnerable groups of children, in particular girls and children with disabilities. In particular, the Committee reiterates the concern of the Human Rights Committee (CCPR/CO/75/TGO of 28 November 2002) and of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (E/C.12/1/Add.61 of 21 May 2001) about “continuing discrimination against … girls with respect to access to education, employment and inheritance”.

“With reference to the recommendations made in this regard by the Human Rights Committee and the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the Committee urges the State party to undertake an in-depth review of all its legislation, including the Individuals and Family Code and the Nationality Code of 1998, in order to fully guarantee the application of the principle of non-discrimination in domestic laws and compliance with article 2 of the Convention, and to adopt a proactive and comprehensive strategy to eliminate discrimination on any grounds and against all vulnerable groups, especially girls and children with disabilities, and children living in remote areas.

“The Committee requests that specific information be included, in the next periodic report, on the measures and programmes relevant to the Convention undertaken by the State party to follow up on the Declaration and Programme of Action adopted at the 2001 World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, taking account of the Committee’s general comment No. 1 (2001) on the aims of education.

“... the Committee is concerned that:

a) only very few children with disabilities have access to education and employment services;

b) education programmes do not prioritize services for disabled children;

c) there is no policy for the integration of children with disabilities.

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) ensure the collection and use of adequately disaggregated and comprehensive data in the development of policies and programmes for children with disabilities;

c) review the situation of these children in terms of their access to suitable health care, education services and employment opportunities;

d) adopt an integration policy, allocate adequate resources to strengthen services for children with disabilities, support their families and train professionals in the field;

e) take note of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96 of 20 December 1993, annex) and of the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339)....

“The Committee is concerned that public spending on education is low, that primary education is not free and that the enrolment rate, especially of girls, is low. The Committee is also concerned that, despite the waiving or reducing of fees for girls and economically disadvantaged children, education is not free, that secondary education is not affordable to many children, and consequently that universal compulsory free education has not been achieved.

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) ensure, as a matter of priority, that at least primary education is compulsory and free;

b) ensure that girls and boys, from urban and rural areas, all have equal access to educational opportunities, without any financial obstacles....”

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Trinidad and Tobago

(17 March 2006, CRC/C/TTO/CO/2, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 49, 50, 59 and 60)

“... the Committee notes ... that there are no special education and assistance programmes currently available.

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) conduct a study on the causes of disabilities affecting children in the State party, with a view to improving their access to suitable health care, education services and employment opportunities; ...

c) in light of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339), further encourage the inclusion of children with disabilities into the regular educational system and their integration into society, inter alia, by giving more attention to special training for teachers and making the physical environment, including schools, sports and leisure facilities and all other public areas, accessible for children with disabilities....

“While welcoming the introduction of free education at primary and secondary levels, the Committee is concerned about: ...

e) the significant number of pregnant teenagers who do not continue their education....

“The Committee recommends that the State party carefully examine the budget allocations and measures taken within the field, with regard to their impact on the progressive implementation of the child’s right to education and leisure activities. In particular, the Committee recommends that the State party:

a) take further measures to facilitate the accessibility to education of children from all groups in society by, inter alia, improve materials provisions in schools, and eliminate additional costs of schooling; ...

c) address the educational needs of pregnant students and teenage mothers in schools and ensure that they have access to education....”

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Turkmenistan

(2 June 2006, CRC/C/TKM/CO/1, Concluding observations on initial report, paras. 22, 49, 50, 59 and 60)

“The Committee is concerned that, inter alia as a result of the “Turkmenization” policy of the State party, discriminatory attitudes and practices exist towards certain national and ethnic minorities such as Russians, Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Turks, Kurds, Beludzhi and Germans. In particular, members of ethnic minority groups are denied a number of fundamental socio-economic rights, such as access to education....

“The Committee notes that there are 18 specialized preschools and 14 residential schools to accommodate children with mental and physical disabilities....

“The Committee recommends that the State party, taking into account the recommendations adopted by the Committee on its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (see CRC/C/69): ...

b) ensure implementation of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 23 December 1993; ...

d) pursue efforts to ensure that children with disabilities are enabled to exercise their right to education to the maximum extent possible and facilitate inclusion in the mainstream education system; ...

g) remove physical barriers to enable effective access of children with disabilities to school and other institutions and public services.

“The Committee is concerned at information that the educational system of Turkmenistan has deteriorated over the past few years. In particular, it is concerned that: ...

h) students belonging to ethnic minorities, notably Kazakh, Uzbek, Armenian and Russian children, have increasingly limited possibilities to study and receive education in their mother tongue, despite legislative provisions in this respect.

“The Committee recommends that the State party, taking into account the Committee’s general comment No. 1 on the aims of education (2001), take all necessary measures to ensure that articles 28 and 29 of the Convention are fully implemented, and in particular that it: ...

d) reopen Kazakh-, Uzbek-, Armenian- and Russian-language classes and schools for children of ethnic minorities....”

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U

Uganda

(23 November 2005, CRC/C/UGA/CO/2, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 47, 60, 61, 81 and 82)

“In light of the United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the recommendations adopted by the Committee on its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (see CRC/C/69), the Committee recommends that the State party take all necessary measures: ...

c) to provide children with disabilities with access to adequate social and health services, to quality education and to the physical environment, information and communication; ...

e) to ensure that professionals working with and for children with disabilities, such as medical, paramedical and related personnel, teachers and social workers, are adequately trained.

“The Committee recommends that the State party, taking into account its general comment No. 1 (2001) on the aims of education: ...

b) increase enrolment in primary and secondary education, reducing socio-economic, ethnic and regional disparities in access to and full enjoyment of the right to education;

c) undertake additional efforts to ensure access to informal education to vulnerable groups, including street children, orphans, children with disabilities, child domestic workers and children in conflict areas and camps, inter alia by eliminating the indirect costs of school education....

“The Committee ... notes the policy of “universal primary education”, which secures access to education for refugee children. However, the Committee is concerned at the poor living conditions, high drop-out rates among girls from fourth grade onwards, inadequate sanitary materials for girls attending schools and lack of reproductive health education.

“The Committee is concerned at the situation of children belonging to minorities, including Batwa children, in particular with regard to their limited access to basic social services, including health care and education, and the violation of their rights to survival and development, to enjoy their own culture and to be protected from discrimination.

“In light of the recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on the rights of indigenous children (CRC/C/133, para. 624), the Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) adopt adequate means and measures to ensure that Batwa communities, including children, are provided with information regarding birth registration procedures, access to health-care facilities and education.”

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Ukraine

(9 October 2002, CRC/C/15/Add.191, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 29, 30, 53, 54, 60, 61, 62, 63, 74 and 75)

“The Committee remains concerned that the principle of non-discrimination is not fully implemented for children of economically disadvantaged households, children living in rural areas, children in institutions, children with disabilities, Roma children and children affected with HIV/AIDS, especially regarding health care, social welfare and education.

“The Committee recommends that the State party monitor the situation of children of economically disadvantaged households, children living in rural areas, children in institutions, children with disabilities, children belonging to national minorities such as Roma children, and children affected with HIV/AIDS. On the basis of the results of this monitoring, comprehensive proactive strategies containing specific and well-targeted actions aimed at eliminating all forms of discrimination, including in particular access to education and health care, should be elaborated.

“The Committee is concerned at the prevailing poor situation of children with disabilities and the increase in the number of disabled children in the period 1993-1997. In particular, it is concerned at: ...

f) the limited inclusion of and access by children with disabilities to various areas of daily life, in particular with regard to the education system.

“In light of article 23 of the Convention, the Committee reiterates its previous recommendations that the State party:

d) in light of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96, annex) and the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339), further encourage their integration into the regular educational system and their inclusion into society, including by providing special training to teachers and by making schools more accessible.

“The Committee welcomes the efforts undertaken by the State party to improve the education system with the introduction of the Act “On education”, which includes such aims as ensuring the delivery of compulsory secondary education to all children of school age. The Committee also welcomes the adoption of State standards for higher education. The Committee remains concerned, however, that: ...

e) there are important regional disparities in the number of education establishments and in the quality of education available, with rural areas being at a particular disadvantage, and that children of small national minorities such as Roma do not get quality education, including in their own language....

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) ensure the availability of free primary education and accessibility for all children in the State party, giving particular attention to children in rural communities, Roma children, Crimean Tatar children and children of other minorities, as well as children from disadvantaged backgrounds, to good quality education, including in their own language....

“The Committee welcomes the enactment of the Refugee Law 2001, but remains concerned that:

a) as noted in the State party’s report, some refugee children, especially older ones, do not attend school which prevents them from obtaining an education and leads to their isolation in Ukrainian society....

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

c) ensure that asylum-seeking, refugee and illegal immigrant children have access to education and health services....

“The Committee is concerned that, despite pilot programmes aimed at improving the situation of the Roma in certain provinces, they still suffer from widespread discrimination, which has in some instances impeded their children’s right to education, health and social welfare.

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) initiate campaigns at all levels and in all provinces aimed at addressing the negative attitudes towards the Roma in society at large and in particular amongst authorities and professionals providing health, education and other social services;

b) develop and implement a plan aimed at integrating all Roma children into mainstream education and prohibiting their segregation in special classes and which includes pre-school programmes for them to learn the primary language of schooling in their community;

c) develop curriculum resources for all schools that include Romani history and culture in order to promote understanding, tolerance and respect for Roma in Ukrainian society.”

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United Kingdom

(3 October 2008, CRC/C/GBR/CO/4 Unedited version, Concluding observations on third-fourth report, paras. 6, 7, 52, 53, 66 and 67)

“The Committee, while welcoming the State party’s efforts to implement the concluding observations on previous State party’s reports, notes with regret that some of the recommendations contained therein have not been fully implemented, in particular:

a) with respect to the second periodic report of the United Kingdom (CRC/C/15/Add.188), those related, inter alia, to: ... education (§ 47-48)....

“The Committee urges the State party to take all necessary measures to address those recommendations from the concluding observations of the previous reports that have not yet – or not sufficiently – been implemented as well as those contained in the present concluding observations. In this context, the Committee draws the attention of the State party to its general comment No.5 (2003) on general measures of implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child.

“The Committee welcomes the State party’s initiatives undertaken at national as well as at local level in terms of analysing and improving the situation of children with disabilities. The Committee, however, is concerned that:

a) there is no comprehensive national strategy for the inclusion of children with disabilities into society....

“In the light of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the Committee’s general comment No. 9 (2006) on the rights of children with disabilities, the Committee recommends that the State party:

a) take all necessary measures to ensure that legislation providing protection for persons with disabilities, as well as programmes and services for children with disabilities, are effectively implemented;

b) develop early identification programmes;

c) provide training for professional staff working with children with disabilities, such as medical, paramedical and related personnel, teachers and social workers;

d) develop a comprehensive national strategy for the inclusion of children with disability in the society;

e) undertake awareness-raising campaigns on the rights and special needs of children with disabilities, encourage their inclusion in society and prevent discrimination and institutionalization;

f) consider ratifying the International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol.

“The Committee notes with appreciation the numerous efforts of the State party in the sphere of education, in order to guarantee the objectives set out in the Convention. However, it is concerned that significant inequalities persist with regard to school achievement of children living with their parents in economic hardship. Several groups of children have problems to be enrolled in school or to continue or re-enter education either in regular schools or alternative educational facilities and cannot fully enjoy their right to education, notably children with disabilities, children of Travellers, Roma children, asylum-seeking children, dropouts and non-attendees for different reasons (sickness, family obligations etc.) and teenage mothers. Furthermore, the Committee is concerned that:

a) participation of children in all aspects of schooling is inadequate, since children have very few consultation rights, in particular they have no right to appeal their exclusion or to appeal the decisions of a special educational needs tribunal; ...

d) the number of permanent and temporary schools exclusions is still high and affects in particular children from groups which in general are low on school achievement;

e) the problem of segregation of education is still present in Northern Ireland;

f) despite the Committee’s previous concluding observations, academic selection at the age of 11 continues in Northern Ireland.

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) continue and strengthen its efforts to reduce the effects of the social background of children in their achievement in school;

b) invest considerable additional resources in order to ensure the right of all children to a truly inclusive education which ensures the full enjoyment to children from all disadvantaged, marginalized and school-distant groups;

c) ensure that all children out of school get alternative quality education;

d) use the disciplinary measure of permanent or temporary exclusion as a means of last resort only, reduce the number of exclusions and get social workers and educational psychologists in school in order to help children in conflict with school; ...

h) ensure that children who are able to express their views have the right to appeal against their exclusion as well as the right, in particular for those in alternative care, to appeal to the special educational need tribunals

i) take measures to address segregation of education in Northern Ireland;

j) put an end to the two tier culture in Northern Ireland by abolishing the 11+ transfer test and ensure that all children are included in admission arrangements in post-primary schools.”

(9 October 2002, CRC/C/15/Add.188, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 and 52)

“... The Committee is concerned at the still high rate of temporary and permanent exclusion from school affecting mainly children from specific groups (ethnic minorities, including black children, Irish and Roma travellers, children with disabilities, asylum-seekers, etc.), and the sharp differences in educational outcomes for children according to their socio-economic background and to other factors such as gender, disability, ethnic origin or care status.... The Committee is particularly concerned that children deprived of their liberty in prisons and juvenile detention centres do not have a statutory right to education ... and that they do not have support for special education needs. The Committee is further concerned that the majority of children in the care system, as well as teenage mothers, do not attain basic qualifications. The Committee welcomes the development of integrated schools in Northern Ireland, but remains concerned that only about 4 per cent of the schools are integrated and that education continues to be largely segregated.

“In light of articles 2, 12, 28 and 29 of the Convention, and in line with its previous recommendations (ibid., para. 32), the Committee recommends that the State party:

b) take appropriate measures to reduce temporary or permanent exclusion, ensure that children throughout the State party have the right to be heard before exclusion and to appeal against temporary and permanent exclusion, and ensure that children who are excluded do continue to have access to full-time education;

c) take all necessary measures to eliminate the inequalities in educational achievement and in exclusion rates between children from different groups and to guarantee all children an appropriate quality education....

“... The Committee is further concerned that ... placement in temporary accommodation of children seeking asylum may infringe their basic rights such as access to health or education....

“In accordance with the principles and provisions of the Convention, especially articles 2, 3, 22 and 37, and with respect to children, whether seeking asylum or not, the Committee recommends that the State party:

b) ensure that refugee and asylum-seeking children have access to basic services such as education and health....

“Committee is concerned at the discrimination against children belonging to the Irish and Roma travellers which is reflected inter alia, in the higher mortality rate among these children, their segregation in education, the conditions of their accommodation and social attitudes towards them....

“In line with its previous recommendations (ibid., para. 40), the Committee recommends that the State party devise, in a consultative and participatory process with these groups and their children, a comprehensive and constructive plan of action to effectively target the obstacles to the enjoyment of rights by children belonging to these groups.”

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United Republic of Tanzania

(21 June 2006, CRC/C/TZA/CO/2, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 42, 43, 55 and 56)

“While welcoming the establishment of the National Advisory Council to monitor rehabilitation centres for children with disabilities, the Committee remains concerned at the limited understanding of the situation of children with disabilities, the limited capacities for early detection and treatment of children with disabilities, the inaccessibility of buildings and transportation to children with disabilities, and the absence of an inclusive policy with regard to children with disabilities.

“In the light of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and its recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339), the Committee recommends that the State party:

a) further encourage the integration of children with disabilities into the regular educational system and their inclusion into society;

b) pay more attention to special training for teachers and making the physical environment, including schools, sports and leisure facilities and all other public areas, accessible for children with disabilities....

“... the Committee is concerned about access to quality education at all levels; the poor physical environment of schools, which often lack appropriate water and sanitation facilities; and the high dropout rates due to pregnancy, early marriage and retention.

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

c) review the 1992 Education Act on Tanzania mainland to prohibit the expulsion of pregnant teenagers from schools;

g) undertake additional efforts regarding facilities for informal education to vulnerable groups, including street children, orphans, children with disabilities, and child workers....”

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Uruguay

(5 July 2007, CRC/C/URY/CO/2, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 47, 48, 57, 58 and 60)

“The Committee regrets the lack of information in relation to the situation of children with disabilities and is concerned that the resources available for these children are inadequate, in particular in order to ensure their access to education.

“The Committee recommends that the State party, taking into account general comment No. 9 (2006) on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/GC/9):

a) ensure implementation of the Standard Rules for Equalizing the Possibilities for Persons with Disabilities, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 20 December 1993;

b) sign and ratify the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol;

c) pursue efforts to ensure that children with disabilities may exercise their right to education, health, recreation and cultural development to the maximum extent possible. Furthermore, measures should be taken to ensure practical access to buildings and installations....

“The Committee ... is concerned at the relatively high dropout rates, in particular among children living in poverty, boys and Afro-descendants....

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

c) undertake affirmative action to improve equal access to education, in particular for children belonging to vulnerable groups, including children living in poverty, boys, Afro-descendants and children in rural areas;

d) compile statistics disaggregated by urban/rural areas, ethnicity and sex in order to monitor repetition and dropout rates as well as the impact of the measures undertaken to combat these problems;

e) effectively monitor discrimination against female students who are expelled due to pregnancy and sanction those responsible within the educational system.....

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) ensure that refugee, asylum-seeking and migrant children ... be guaranteed access to health services and education while in the territory of the State party....

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Uzbekistan

(2 June 2006, CRC/C/UZB/CO/2, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 46, 47, 57 and 58)

“The Committee is concerned that children with disabilities remain disadvantaged in the enjoyment of their rights guaranteed by the Convention, and are not fully integrated into the education system as well as into recreational or cultural activities.

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) review all policies affecting children with disabilities to ensure they meet the needs of children with disabilities and are in accordance with the Convention and the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 20 December 1993 (A/RES/48/96);

b) ensure that children with disabilities may exercise their rights to education and facilitate their inclusion in the mainstream education system;

c) increase the human and financial resources allocated to mainstream education and services for children with disabilities, and when necessary, increase the human and financial resources allocated to special education for children with disabilities....

“The Committee is also concerned at information that refugee children may have difficult access to free primary education and that they find it difficult to attend secondary school, as they are required to pay fees as foreigners.

“The Committee recommends that the State party, taking into account the Committee’s general comment No. 1 on the aims of education (2001), undertake all necessary measures to ensure that articles 28 and 29 of the Convention are fully implemented. In particular, the State party should:

a) ensure that primary education is free and accessible to all children, taking also into account the Dakar Framework for Action (2000);

d) ensure that refugee children have access to free primary education and facilitate access to secondary education....”

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V

Venezuela

(5 October 2007, CRC/C/VEN/CO/2 Unedited version, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 56, 57, 66 and 67)

“... The Committee is concerned at the lack of data on the number of children with disability that are current receiving educational services in the regular educational system....

“The Committee recommends that the State party, taking into account the General Comment No. 9 (2006) on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/GC/9):

a) ensure that all children with disabilities receive education, and encourage the inclusion of children with disabilities in regular schools;

b) implement the Standard Rules for Equalizing the Possibilities for Persons with Disabilities, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 23 December 1993; ...

e) sign and ratify the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol.

“... The Committee remains concerned however that: ...

c) enrolment rates of indigenous, afro descendants and children living in rural areas are low;

d) refugee and asylum-seeking children are hindered to continue their education through bureaucratic obstacles....

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) strengthen efforts to increase enrolment in preschool care and education facilities and in the higher grades of primary schools as well as in secondary schools, in particular in the rural and remote border areas and with respect to indigenous children;

b) facilitate the enrolment of refugee and asylum-seeking children by removing administrative obstacles to their inclusion in the educational system on an adequate grade level and ensure full implementation of their right to education....”

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Viet Nam

(18 March 2003, CRC/C/15/Add.200, Concluding observations on second report, paras. 22, 23, 24, 43, 44, 47 and 48)

“... the lower level of development indicators for ethnic minorities appears to indicate the existence of some level of societal and institutional discrimination, specifically with regard to their access to health and education.

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) strengthen efforts to eliminate disparities in the accessibility and quality of health care and education between regions and ethnic minorities....

“The Committee requests that specific information be included, in the next periodic report, on the measures and programmes relevant to the Convention undertaken by the State party to follow up on the Durban Declaration and Programme of Action adopted at the World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, held in 2001, and that account should be taken of General Comment No. 1 on article 29, paragraph 1, of the Convention (aims of education).

“The Committee is very concerned at the high proportion of children with disabilities who that do not attend school, do not have access to vocational training or preparation for employment and have limited access to rehabilitation services, particularly in rural areas.

“The Committee recommends that the State party, in accordance with the recommendations arising from the Committee’s 1997 day of general discussion on children with disabilities, and the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96):

a) undertake a comprehensive survey of the number of children with disabilities, including those currently not attending school, in order to assess their educational and vocational training needs, and their access to rehabilitation and other social services; ...

c) expand existing programmes aimed at improving the physical access of children with disabilities to public buildings and areas, including schools and recreational facilities, and increase the number of integrated education programmes at pre-primary, primary, secondary and tertiary levels.

“While noting the State party’s efforts to achieve universal enrolment at primary school level, the Committee is concerned that there are significant gaps in access to and quality of education between urban and rural or mountainous regions.... In addition, the Committee is concerned at the low enrolment rates in pre-primary education, the high number of repeaters of the first grade and the significant disparity in enrolment in nursery schools between boys and girls.

“The Committee recommends that the State party:

a) take all appropriate measures to increase enrolment in pre-primary education, in particular for girls and in rural areas, and ensure the right to quality, free primary education for all children; ...

c) recruit and train a greater number of teachers from all ethnic minority groups, and continue to provide incentives to teachers working in remote and mountainous regions;

d) prioritize rural areas and remote and mountainous regions in existing programmes to improve the quality of teaching and the curriculum, and in the construction and development of school infrastructure.”

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Y

Yemen

(21 September 2005, CRC/C/15/Add.267, Concluding observations on third report, paras. 33, 53, 54, 63 and 64)

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

d) train school teachers, media and members of the legal profession, particularly the judiciary, to be gender-sensitive....

“While acknowledging the efforts made by the State party, the Committee remains concerned at the numerous problems faced by children with disabilities. It is particularly concerned at the lack of: ...

c) integration of children with disabilities into the regular schooling system.

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

c) review the situation of children with disabilities, in terms of their access to employment, education, housing and health-care facilities, and allocate adequate resources to strengthen services for children with disabilities, support their families and provide training for professionals in this field;

d) formulate a strategy, one which includes appropriate teacher training, to ensure that all children with disabilities have access to education, and whenever possible they are integrated into the mainstream education system; ...

f) take note of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the Committee’s recommendations adopted at its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/69, paras. 310-339)....

“The Committee ... remains deeply concerned that: ...

b) the level of illiteracy of women is high; ...

f) negative stereotypes of girls remain in school curricula....

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

c) continue its efforts to ensure that all children have equal access to educational opportunities with a view to eliminating the prevailing disparities between girls and boys as well as in urban and rural areas; ...

e) taking into account the Committee’s general comment No. 1 (2001) on the aims of education, strengthen its efforts to include human rights education in school curricula at all levels, particularly with respect to the development of and respect for human rights, tolerance and equality of the sexes and ethnic minorities....”

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Z

Zambia

(2 July 2003, CRC/C/15/Add.206, Concluding observations on initial report, paras. 52, 53, 56, 57 and 58)

“The Committee is concerned at ... the limited facilities and services for children with disabilities and at the limited number of trained teachers to work with children with disabilities, as well as the insufficient efforts made to facilitate their inclusion into the educational system and generally within society. The Committee also notes with concern that inadequate resources have been allocated to special education programmes for children with disabilities.

“In light of the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities (General Assembly resolution 48/96) and the recommendations adopted by the Committee at its day of general discussion on the rights of children with disabilities (CRC/C/69), it is recommended that the State party: ...

d) establish special education programmes for disabled children and include them in the regular school system to the extent possible; ...

g) seek technical cooperation for the training of professional staff, including teachers, working with and for children with disabilities from, among others, WHO.

“The Committee notes the adoption of the National Policy on Education (1996), the Basic Education Subsector of the Education Programme, the Zambian Education Capacity-Building Programme, and the Programme for the Advancement of Girl Child Education.... The Committee is also concerned at the decreasing budget allocation to education, gender and regional disparities in enrolment in schools, absenteeism, the high drop-out (especially among girls) and repeat rates, the poor quality of education, the insufficient number of trained teachers, insufficient schools and classrooms, the lack of relevant learning material and the limited access to pre-school education, notably in rural areas....

“The Committee recommends that the State party: ...

b) progressively ensure that girls and boys, as well as children from urban, rural and least developed areas, have equal access to educational opportunities;

c) take the necessary measures to improve the quality of education and to improve internal efficiency in the management of education, notably by decreasing the drop-out rate, especially for girls....

“The Committee ... remains concerned about the difficult situation encountered by child refugees and their families, e.g. in the areas of health care and education.”

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